Performance of alkali activated slag concrete under aggressive environment

Document Type : Article


School of Civil Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur – 613 401, Tamilnadu, India.


The environmental effects of production of Portland cement (PC) have provoked to examine the growth of concrete with 100% replacement of cement with industrial byproducts containing high amount of Si and Al, which are activated by alkali solutions termed as geopolymer concrete. Concrete made with PC can be durable under mild exposure condition when properly designed whereas undergo deterioration under severe exposure condition. Since very few works have been performed on the ambient cured alkali activated slag concrete (AASC) under aggressive environmental condition, this work was intended to study the effect of binder content and sodium hydroxide concentration on AASC subjected to aggressive environment. In this regard, an experimental investigation was carried out to study the influence of AASC under chloride, acid and sulphate environment on its physical and mechanical properties. The results infer that the AASC mixes perform well under aggressive environment condition.


Main Subjects

1. Xie, S.Y., Shao, J.F., and Burlion, N. \Experimental
study of mechanical behaviour of cement paste under
compressive stress and chemical degradation", Cem.
Concr. Res., 38(12), pp. 1416-1423 (2008).
2. Yang, C.C. and Cho, S.W. \The relationship between
chloride migration rate for concrete and electrical
current in steady state using the accelerated chloride
migration test", Mater. Struct., 37, pp. 456-463
3. Wang, C.H., Tsai, C.L., and Lin, C.C. \Penetration
lag of chloride di usion through concrete plate based
on advancing model", J. Mar. Sci. Tech., 19(2), pp.
141-147 (2011).
4. Rasheeduzzafar, Dakhil, F.H., Al-Gahrani, A.S., Al-
Saadoun, S.S., and Bader, M.A. \In
uence of cement
composition on the corrosion of reinforcement and
sulfate resistance of concrete", ACI Mater. J., 87(2),
pp. 114-122 (1990).
5. Rasheeduzzafar, Al-Amoudi, O.S.B., Abduljanwad,
S.N., and Maslehuddin, M. \Magnesium- sodium sulfate
attack in plain and blended cements", J. Mater.
Civil. Eng., 6(2), pp. 201-222 (1994).
6. Gollop, R.S. and Taylor, H.F.W. \Microstructural and
microanalytical studies of sulfate attack: I. Ordinary
Portland cement paste", Cem. Concr. Res., 22(6), pp.
1027-1038 (1992).
7. Bakharev, T., Sanjayan, J.G., and Chen, Y.B. \Resistance
of alkali-activated slag concrete to acid attack",
Cem. Concr. Res., 33(10), pp. 1607-1611 (2003).
8. Jiang, W., Silsbee, M.R., Breval, E., and Roy, D.M.
\Alkali activated cementitious materials in chemically
aggressive environments", In Mechanisms of Chemical
Degradation of Cement-Based Systems, K.L. Scrivener
and J.F. Young, E & FN Spon, London (1997).
9. Wang, S.D. and Scrivener, K.L. \Hydration products
of alkali activated slag cement", Cem. Concr. Res.,
25(3), pp. 561-571 (1995).
10. Yang, K.H., Song, J.K., Ashour, A.F., and Lee, E.T.
\Properties of cementless mortars activated by sodium
silicate", Constr. Build. Mater., 22(9) pp. 1981-1989
11. Li, G. and Zhao, X. \Properties of concrete incorporating

y ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag",
Cem. Concr. Compos., 25(3), pp. 293-299 (2003).
12. van Jaarsveld, J.G.S., van Deventer, J.S.J., and Lukey,
G.C. \The e ect of composition and temperature on
the properties of
y ash- and kaolinite-based geopolymers",
Chem. Eng. J., 89(1-3), pp. 63-73 (2002).
13. Ridtirud, C., Chindaprasirt, P., and Pimraksa, K.
\Factors a ecting the shrinkage of
yash geopolymers",
Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 18(1), pp. 100-
104 (2011).
14. Bondar, D., Lynsdale, C.J., Milestone, N.B., Hassani,
N., and Ramezanianpour, A.A. \Engineering properties
of alkali-activated natural Pozzolan concrete", ACI
Mater. J., 108(1), pp. 64-72 (2011).
15. Khale, D. and Chaudhary, R. \Mechanism of geopolymerization
and factors in
uencing its development: A
review", J. Mater. Sci., 42(3), pp. 729-746 (2007).
16. Bernal, S.A., Provis, J.L., de Gutierrez, R.M.,
and Rose, V. \Evolution of binder structure in
sodium silicate-activated slag-metakaolin blends",
Cem. Concr. Compos., 33(1), pp. 46-54 (2011).
17. Ismail, I., Bernal, S.A., Provis, J.L., San Nicolas, R.,
Hamdan, S., and van Deventer, J.S.J. \Modi cation of
phase evolution in alkali-activated blast furnace slag by
the incorporation of
y ash", Cem. Concr. Compos.,
45, pp. 125-135 (2014).
18. Lothenbach, B., Scrivener, K., and Hooton, R.D.
\Supplementary cementitious materials", Cem. Concr.
Res., 41(12), pp. 1244-1256 (2011).
19. Provis, J.L., Myers, R.J., White, C.E., Rose, V.,
and van Deventer, J.S.J. \X-ray microtomography
shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated
binders", Cem. Concr. Res., 42(6), pp. 855-864 (2012).
2460 P. Kathirvel and S.R.M. Kaliyaperumal/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 2451{2460
20. Thokchom, S., Ghosh, P., and Ghosh, S. \E ect of
Na2O content on durability of geopolymer mortars in
sulphuric acid", Int. J. Recent Trends Eng., 1, pp. 36-
40 (2009).
21. Justnes, H. \Thaumasite followed by sulphate attack
on mortar with limestone ller", Cem. Concr. Compos.,
25(8), pp. 955-959 (2003).
22. Santhanam, M., Cohen, M.D., and Olek, J. \E ects of
gypsum formation on the performance of cement mortars
during external sulphate attack", Cem. Concr.
Res., 33(3), pp. 325-332 (2003).
23. Thokchom, S., Ghosh, P., and Ghosh, S. \Performance
y ash based geopolymer mortars in sulphate solution",
J. Eng. Sci. Technol. Rev., 3(1), pp. 36-40
24. Siva Ranjani, G.I. and Ramamurthy, K. \Relative
assessment of density and stability of foam produced
with four synthetic surfactants", Mater. Struct.,
43(10), pp. 1317-1325 (2010).
25. Singh, B., Ishwarya, G., Gupta, M., and Bhattacharyya,
S.K. \Geopolymer concrete: a review of
some recent developments", Const. Build. Mater.,
85(15), pp. 78-90 (2015).
26. McGrath, P.F. and Hooton, R.D. \Re-evaluation of the
AASHTO T259 90day salt ponding test", Cem. Concr.
Res., 29(8), pp. 1239-1248 (1999).
27. Bernal, S.A., de Gutierrez, R.M., and Provis, J.L.
\Engineering and durability properties of concretes
based on alkali-activated granulated blast furnace
slag/metakaolin blends", Constr. Build. Mater., 33,
pp. 99-108 (2012).
28. Ken, P.W., Ramli, M., and Ban, C.C. \An overview
on the in
uence of various factors on the properties
of geopolymer concrete derived from industrial byproducts",
Constr. Build. Mater., 77, pp. 370-395
29. Bakharev, T., Sanjayan, J.G., and Cheng, Y.B. \Hydration
of slag activated by alkalis", J. Aust. Ceram.
Soc., 34, pp. 195-200 (1998).
30. Yang, T., Yao, X., and Zhang, Z. \Quanti cation of
chloride di usion in
y ash-slag-based geopolymers by
uorescence (XRF)", Constr. Build. Mater., 69,
pp. 109-115 (2014).