Eff ect of water-in-heavy fuel oil emulsion on the non-reacting spray characteristics under di erent ambient conditions and injection pressures: A CFD study


Department of Marine Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Iran.


Emulsi ed fuel is one of the main strategies to substitute the conventional fossil fuel for the purpose of emission control and enhancement of fuel eciency. Accordingly, non-reacting spray characteristics of water-in-Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) emulsion are numerically investigated in the present study via CFD analysis. Three di erent volumetric percentages of water in HFO are investigated and compared with pure HFO. E ects of four di erent injection pressures on injected fuel spray characteristics are studied. Moreover, in fluences of three di erent ambient back pressures and two ambient temperatures are considered. For these purposes, the characteristics of spray penetration, cone angle, volume, and SMD are evaluated through the analyses of non-dimensional numbers. For modeling the interaction of the fuel discrete phase and the gaseous continuous phase, Eulerian- Lagrangian multiphase formulation in OpenFOAM CFD toolbox is implemented. Fuel droplet tracking in Lagrangian scheme is applied by Lagrangian Particle Tracking method. Also, KH-RT as a hybrid breakup model for liquid fuel core breakup and standard model of k ???? " in RANS for turbulence modeling are utilized. Numerical results are validated against existing experimental data with suitable accordance. Longer spray penetration length, larger cone angle, and greater spray volume are achieved for the emulsi ed fuels.