Water Harvesting of Urban Runoff in Kuwait


Department of Civil Engineering,Kuwait University


This paper presents the application of the SWMM model to estimate the runoff due to
rainfall over urban areas in Kuwait. The SWMM provides a powerful tool, in terms of its graphical
capabilities and fast convergence to optimal design parameters for large urban areas. More importantly,
simulation of the dynamic wave resulting from the urban runoff-transport phenomenon leads to a more
accurate design for the storm drainage system, which, in Kuwait, has traditionally been based on the
Rational Method. The results of this study con rm the quantitative viability of harvesting the otherwise
lost runoff towards providing an additional water resource in Kuwait. A preliminary analysis of storm
water quality also conforms its qualitative viability. A carefully designed, comparative questionnaire was
used to solicit public opinion from various layers of society. The findings clearly indicate a strong public
support in favor of using harvested storm water versus recycled waste water. Given the semi-arid nature
of Kuwait, multiplicity of fresh water resources is vital. This study presents harvested storm water as
a strong vital option. The strategic decision, vis-a-vis the optimal combination of fresh water resources,
should be based on thorough technical and nancial analyses. Resorting to the SWMM in designing storm
drainage systems instead of the Rational Method will certainly minimize the ill effects of
ooding, as
recently experienced in Kuwait.