Production of Low Ester (LM) Pectin by De-esterification of High Ester (HM) Apple Pectin


Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering,Sharif University of Technology


In this paper, LM pectin production from commercial apple pectin by using acid, alkali and ammonia methods in the presence of ethanol was studied. Also, the effect of different parameters such as, temperature, time, acid, alkali and ammonia treatment in LM pectin production were evaluated. In all the experiments, low temperature showed a better influence from a recovery, purity and low de-polymerization viewpoint. Optimum conditions in the acid method reached at pH=2, t=17 hrs and T=30\degree C, in the alkaline method reached at pH=11, t=3 hrs and T=5\degree C and in the ammonia method reached at 2 N ammonia and T=5\degree C, were determined.