An effective dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for pharmaceutical extraction: Optimization via central composite design

Document Type : Article


Research Lab for Advanced Separation Processes, Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran, Iran


In this study, a simple and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure (DLLME) was developed to remove diclofenac sodium (DF) from water samples. Various parameters such as diclofenac concentration in aqueous phase (10-50 mg/L), process time (2-10 min), extraction solvent concentration (0.005-0.025 M), and centrifuge speed (1000-5000 rpm) were investigated. The experimental design was performed by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) according to the central composite design (CCD) to reduce the number of experiments and determine the optimal extraction conditions. The effect of the single and simultaneous operational parameters was evaluated. In this regard, the extraction concentration of 0.01 M, the initial diclofenac concentration in aqueous phase 20 mg/L, the rotation speed of the centrifuge 4000 rpm, and the residence time of 8 min were obtained as the optimum operating conditions. According to the other studies and available findings, the ratio of two-phase organic and aqueous discharges (Qorg⁄Qaq) was set to 1:9. The diclofenac extraction from the aqueous phase was 77.91% in optimum operating conditions.