Document Type : Article
School of Management, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China
Coupling renewable energy, electric vehicles and hydrogen storage is an effective way for integrated energy systems (IES) to move toward a low-carbon approach. The uncertainties of wind power, PV power and load demand are considered, meanwhile, a ladder-type carbon trading mechanism is designed, and the model is transformed into a deterministic MILP, while the reliability of spinning reserve power is measured by a proper confidence level. Meanwhile, the objective function is constructed based on the optimization strategy of deviation preference, and two objectives are introduced to optimize the annual comprehensive cost (ACC) and annual carbon emission (ACE). The problem is transformed into a MILP model and the optimization of the capacity configuration of this IES is performed. The results show that the IES has advantages in economic and environmental performance. The IES has significant advantages in carbon dioxide emission reduction (CDER); meanwhile, EVs show advantages in CDER and charging cost compared to those in the non-IES. Carbon dioxide emissions in IES are only one-fifth of those of conventional distribution system and the CDER effect is noticeable. Moreover, EV charging cost in the IES is relatively lower, while the CDER effect is an order of magnitude better than that of non-IES.