Energy optimization of water-based hybrid nanomaterials over a wedge-shaped channel

Document Type : Research Note


Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan


Convergent/divergent channels have real-world applications including the production of fibers and glass, the fabrication of plastic sheets, the manipulation of molten metal streams, and the industrial casting of metal. This article intends to discuss the flow and thermal transport of mixture of nanoparticles, namely, copper and molybdenum oxide in a base fluid (water) over a wedge-shaped channel. The dissipation effects are taken into account. To understand the thermophysical characteristics of the nanoparticles, the Yamada Ota model is selected. By using similarity transformations, the partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations. The numerical solution is developed by applying the bvp4c built-in MATLAB. The impact of irreversibility effects are also incorporated. Moreover, the outcomes for wall stress parameter and Nusselt number are calculated as function of pertinent parameters. It is noted that the momentum and energy of the system are reduced due to accretion in the nanoparticles volume fraction of copper for both hybrid nanofluids and conventional nanofluids. For both convergent and divergent channels, heat transport is an increasing function of Brinkman number. The numerical values of thermal transport are developed for a specific range of Brinkman number and decreased for Reynolds number.


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