Performance evaluation of modified tuned liquid dampers for seismic response control of nonlinear benchmark buildings

Document Type : Article


Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


In this study, the performance of modified tuned liquid dampers (MTLD) is evaluated to control the seismic response of 9 and 20-story nonlinear benchmark buildings. MTLD is a type of tuned liquid damper (TLD) that is equipped with a rotational spring at the base and thus experiences both horizontal and rotational motion with structural vibration. The equations obtained by shallow water wave theory are used to describe the water sloshing in the MTLD tank. The optimal design of main MTLD parameters such as dimensionless rotational stiffness, mass and frequency ratio, and the tank distance from the top of the structure are investigated. In addition, the effects of far-field and near-field earthquakes on MTLD performance are discussed and compared with the performance of TLD in detail. The results show that MTLD is somewhat more efficient than TLD both in reducing seismic response and reducing structural damage caused by nonlinear behavior of the structures.


1. Fujino, Y., Sun, L., Pacheco, B.M., et al. "Tuned liquid damper (TLD) for suppressing horizontal motion of structures", Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 118(10), pp. 2017-2030 (1992). 9399(1992)118:10(2017).
2. Horikawa, K. "Coastal engineering: an introduction to ocean engineering", Publ. by: University of Tokyo Press (1978).
3. Kim, Y.M., You, K.P., Cho, J.E., et al. "The vibration performance experiment of tuned liquid damper and tuned liquid column damper", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 20(6), pp. 795-805 (2006).
4. Bauer, H.F. "Oscillations of immiscible liquids in a rectangular container: a new damper for excited structures", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 93(1), pp. 117-133 (1984).
5. Kareem, A. and Sun, W.J. "Stochastic response of structures with  fluid-containing appendages", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 119(3), pp. 389-408 (1987).
6. Shimizu, T. and Hayama, S. "Nonlinear responsed of sloshing based on the shallow water wave theory: Vibration, control engineering, engineering for industry", JSME International Journal, 30(263), pp. 806- 813 (1987).
7. Sun, L.M., Fujino, Y., Pacheco, B.M., et al. "Modelling of tuned liquid damper (TLD)", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 43(1-3), pp. 1883-1894 (1992).
8. Koh, C.G., Mahatma, S., and Wang, C.M. "Theoretical and experimental studies on rectangular liquid dampers under arbitrary excitations", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 23(1), pp. 17-31 (1994).
9. Sun, L.M., Fujino, Y., and Koga, K. "A model of tuned liquid damper for suppressing pitching motions of structures", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 24(5), pp. 625-636 (1995).
10. Banerji, P., Murudi, M., Shah, A.H., et al. "Tuned liquid dampers for controlling earthquake response of structures", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 29(5), pp. 587-602 (2000). 9845(200005)29:5<587::AID-EQE926>3.0.CO;2-I.
11. Lu, M.L., Popplewell, N., Shah, A.H., et al. "Nutation damper undergoing a coupled motion", Modal Analysis, 10(9), pp. 1313-1334 (2004).
12. Samanta, A. and Banerji, P. "Efficient numerical schemes to analyse earthquake response of structures with tuned liquid dampers", Symposium on Earthquake Engineering (2006, January).
13. Soliman, I. "Passive and semi-active structure-multiple tuned liquid damper systems", PhD Thesis, University of Western Ontario (2012).
14. Shoaei, P. and Oromi, H.T. "A combined control strategy using tuned liquid dampers to reduce displacement demands of base-isolated structures: a probabilistic approach", Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 13(4), pp. 890-903 (2019).
15. Shin, J.H., Kwak, M.K., Kim, S.M., et al. "Vibration control of multi-story building structure by hybrid control using tuned liquid damper and active mass damper", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 34(12), pp. 5005-5015 (2020).
16. Enayati, H. and Zahrai, S.M. "A variably baffled tuned liquid damper to reduce seismic response of a fivestorey building", Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Structures and Buildings, 171(4), pp. 306- 315 (2018).
17. McNamara, K.P., Awad, B.N., Tait, M.J., et al. "Incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics model of a rectangular tuned liquid damper containing screens", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 103, 103295 (2021). uidstructs.2021.103295.
18. Zhang, Z. "Numerical and experimental investigations of the sloshing modal properties of sloped-bottom tuned liquid dampers for structural vibration control", Engineering Structures, 204, p. 110042 (2020).
19. Pandit, A.R. and Biswal, K.C. "Seismic control of multi degree of freedom structure outfitted with sloped bottom tuned liquid damper", In Structures, 25, pp. 229-240, Elsevier (2020).
20. Konar, T. and Ghosh, A. "Development of a novel tuned liquid damper with  floating base for converting deep tanks into effective vibration control devices", Advances in Structural Engineering, 24(2), pp. 401- 407 (2021).
21. Ruiz, R., Taflanidis, A.A., Lopez-Garcia, D., et al. "Life-cycle based design of mass dampers for the Chilean region and its application for the evaluation of the effectiveness of tuned liquid dampers with  floating roof", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(3), pp. 943-970 (2016).
22. Samanta, A. and Banerji, P. "Structural vibration control using modified tuned liquid dampers", The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering, 3(1), pp. 14-27 (2010).
23. Chang, Y., Noormohamed, A., and Mercan, O. "Analytical and experimental investigations of Modified Tuned Liquid Dampers (MTLDs)", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 428, pp. 179-194 (2018).
24. Kamgar, R., Gholami, F., Sanayei, H.R.Z., et al. "Modified tuned liquid dampers for seismic protection of buildings considering soil-tructure interaction effects", Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering, pp. 1-16 (2019).
25. Wang, J.T., Gui, Y., Zhu, F., et al. "Real-time hybrid simulation of multi-story structures installed with tuned liquid damper", Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 23(7), pp. 1015-1031 (2016).
26. Eswaran, M., Athul, S., Niraj, P., et al. "Tuned liquid dampers for multi-storey structure: numerical simulation using a partitioned FSI algorithm and experimental validation", Sadhana, 42(4), pp. 449-465 (2017).
27. Tuong, B.P.D., Huynh, P.D., Bui, T.T., et al. "Numerical analysis of the dynamic responses of multistory  structures equipped with tuned liquid dampers considering fluid-structure interactions", Open Construction and Building Technology Journal, 13(1), pp. 289-300 (2019).
28. Ohtori, Y., Christenson, R.E., Spencer Jr, B.F., et al. "Benchmark control problems for seismically excited nonlinear buildings", Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 130(4), pp. 366-385 (2004). 9399(2004)130:4(366).
29. Cunge, J. "Practical aspects of computational river hydraulics", Pitman Publishing Ltd, London, (17 CUN), 420 (1980).
30. Stoker, J.J., Water Waves: The Mathematical Theory with Applications, 36, John Wiley and Sons (1992). 
31. Elias, S., Matsagar, V., and Datta, T.K. "Distributed tuned mass dampers for multi-mode control of benchmark building under seismic excitations", Journal of Earthquake Engineering, pp. 1-36 (2017).