Document Type : Article

**Authors**

School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

**Abstract**

Project scheduling has become one of the critical concerns of the construction project's success. In recent years, global construction markets have become increasingly competitive, and the number of project stakeholders has grown significantly. These issues have required concurrently reaching competing objectives, such as optimizing the time, resources, cost, environmental impact, safety risks, and quality of a project. Several types of research efforts have focused on multiple-objective construction scheduling models to deal with these objectives. However, there is still a need to integrate all these objectives in the scheduling process to consider most aspects of a project. In order to fill this gap, a many-objective optimization model considering time, cost, resource, environmental impact, safety, and quality based on a newly developed many-objective optimization algorithm, Non-dominated Sorting Differential Evolution algorithm based on Reference points (NSDE-R) is presented in this study. To determine the most proper schedule based on project priorities, the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) merged with the optimization algorithm. The proposed model's applicability demonstrated employing a case study of a building construction project.

**Keywords**

References:

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28. Churchman, C.W. and Ackoff, R.L. "An approximate measure of value", Journal of the Operations Research Society of America, 2(2), pp. 172-87 (1954).

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34. Cooke, B. and Williams, P., Construction Planning, Programming and Control, pp. 1-363, John Wiley & Sons (2013).

35. Storn, R. and Price, K. "Differential evolution-a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces", Journal of Global Optimization, 11(4), pp. 341-59 (1997).

36. Price, K., Storn, R.M., and Lampinen, J.A., Differential Evolution: A Practical Approach to Global Optimization, pp. 1-543, Springer Science & Business Media (2006).

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39. Tran, D.H. and Long, L.D. "Project scheduling with time, cost and risk trade-off using adaptive multiple objective differential evolution", Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 21(2), pp. 623-38 (2018).

40. Tran, D.-H., Cheng, M.-Y., and Cao, M.-T. "Hybrid multiple objective artificial bee colony with differential evolution for the time-cost-quality tradeoff problem", Knowledge-Based Systems, 74, pp. 176-86 (2015).

41. Coello, C.A.C. and Lamont, G.B., Applications of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms, World Scientific, pp. 1-791 (2004).

42. Reddy, S.R. and Dulikravich, G.S. "Many-objective differential evolution optimization based on reference points: NSDE-R", Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 60(4), pp. 1455-73 (2019).

43. Kalhor, E., Khanzadi, M., Eshtehardian, E., and Afshar, A. "Stochastic time-cost optimization using non-dominated archiving ant colony approach", Automation in Construction, 20(8), pp. 1193-203 (2011).

44. Elbeltagi, E., Hegazy, T., and Grierson, D. "Comparison among five evolutionary-based optimization algorithms", Advanced Engineering Informatics, 19(1), pp. 43-53 (2005).

45. Audet, C., Bigeon, J., Cartier, D., Le Digabel, S., and Salomon, L. "Performance indicators in multiobjective optimization", European Journal of Operational Research, 292(2), pp. 1-50 (2020).

46. Maghsoudlou, H., Afshar-Nadjafi, B., and Niaki, S.T.A. "A multi-objective invasive weeds optimization algorithm for solving multi-skill multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem", Computers & Chemical Engineering, 88, pp. 157-69 (2016).

47. Zheng, D.X., Ng, S.T., and Kumaraswamy, M.M. "Applying Pareto ranking and niche formation to genetic algorithm-based multiobjective time-cost optimization", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 131(1), pp. 81-91 (2005).

48. Zhang, Y. and Ng, S.T. "An ant colony system based decision support system for construction timecost optimization", Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 18(4), pp. 580-9 (2012).

2. Fallah-Mehdipour, E., Haddad, O.B., Tabari, M.M.R., and Mari~no, M.A. "Extraction of decision alternatives in construction management projects: Application and adaptation of NSGA-II and MOPSO", Expert Systems with Applications, 39(3), pp. 2794-803 (2012).

3. Kaveh, A., Moghanni, R.M., and Javadi, S.M. "Ground motion record selection using multi-objective optimization algorithms: A comparative study", Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 63(3), pp. 812- 22 (2019).

4. Kaveh, A. and Massoudi, M. "Multi-objective optimization of structures using charged system search", Scientia Iranica, 21(6), pp. 45-60 (2014).

5. Kaveh, A., Fahimi-Farzam, M., and Kalateh-Ahani, M. "Performance-based multi-objective optimal design of steel frame structures: nonlinear dynamic procedure", Scientia Iranica, 22(2), pp. 373-87 (2015).

6. Kaveh, A. and Vazirinia, Y. "Smart-home electrical energy scheduling system using multi-objective antlion optimizer and evidential reasoning", Scientia Iranica, 27(1), pp. 177-201 (2020).

7. Kaveh, A. and Ilchi Ghazaan, M. "A new VPSbased algorithm for multi-objective optimization problems", Engineering with Computers, 36(3), pp. 1029- 40 (2020).

8. Deb, K. and Jain, H. "An evolutionary many-objective optimization algorithm using reference-point-based nondominated sorting approach. Part I: solving problems with box onstraints", IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 18(4), pp. 577-601 (2013).

9. Feng, C.-W., Liu, L., and Burns, S.A. "Using genetic algorithms to solve construction time-cost trade-off problems", Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 11(3), pp. 184-9 (1997).

10. Zhang, H. and Li, H. "Multi-objective particle swarm optimization for construction time-cost tradeoff problems", Construction Management and Economics, 28(1), pp. 75-88 (2010).

11. Afshar, A., Ziaraty, A.K., Kaveh, A., and Sharifi, F. "Nondominated archiving multicolony ant algorithm in time-cost trade-off optimization", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135(7), pp. 668-74 (2009).

12. Senouci, A.B. and Eldin, N.N. "Use of genetic algorithms in resource scheduling of construction projects", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 130(6), pp. 869-77 (2004).

13. Chan, W.-T., Chua, D.K., and Kannan, G. "Construction resource scheduling with genetic algorithms", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 122(2), pp. 125-32 (1996).

14. Zahraie, B. and Tavakolan, M. "Stochastic time-costresource utilization optimization using nondominated sorting genetic algorithm and discrete fuzzy sets", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135(11), pp. 62-71 (2009).

15. Ghoddousi, P., Eshtehardian, E., Jooybanpour, S., and Javanmardi, A. "Multi-mode resource-constrained discrete time-cost-resource optimization in project scheduling using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm", Automation in Construction, 30, pp. 216-27 (2013).

16. Marzouk, M., Madany, M., Abou-Zied, A., and El-said, M. "Handling construction pollutions using multiobjective optimization", Construction Management and Economics, 26(10), pp. 1113-25 (2008).

17. Ozcan-Deniz, G., Zhu, Y., and Ceron, V. "Time, cost, and environmental impact analysis on construction operation optimization using genetic algorithms", Journal of Management in Engineering, 28(3), pp. 265-72 (2012).

18. Cheng, M.-Y. and Tran, D.-H. "Opposition-based multiple-objective differential evolution to solve the time-cost-environment impact trade-off problem in construction projects", Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 29(5), pp. 1-10 (2015).

19. Afshar, A. and Zolfaghar Dolabi, H. "Multi-objective optimization of time-cost-safety using genetic algorithm", Iran University of Science & Technology, 4(4), pp. 433-50 (2014).

20. El-Rayes, K. and Kandil, A. "Time-cost-quality tradeo ff analysis for highway construction", Journal of construction Engineering and Management, 131(4), pp. 477-86 (2005).

21. Afshar, A., Kaveh, A., and Shoghli, O. "Multiobjective optimization of time-cost-quality using multi-colony ant algorithm", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing), 8, pp. 113-24 (2007).

22. Elbeltagi, E., Ammar, M., Sanad, H., and Kassab, M. "Overall multiobjective optimization of construction projects scheduling using particle swarm", Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 23(3), pp. 265-82 (2016).

23. Koppen, M. and Yoshida, K. "Substitute distance assignments in NSGA-II for handling many-objective optimization problems", International Conference on Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization, Springer, pp. 727-41 (2007).

24. Zheng, H. "The bi-level optimization research for timecost-quality-environment trade-off scheduling problem and its application to a construction project", Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management, Springer, pp. 745-53 (2017).

25. Panwar, A. and Jha, K.N. "A many-objective optimization model for construction scheduling", Construction Management and Economics, 37(12), pp. 727-39 (2019).

26. Sharma, K. and Trivedi, M.K. "Latin hypercube sampling-based NSGA-III optimization model for multimode resource constrained time-cost-quality-safety trade-off in construction projects", International Journal of Construction Management, pp. 1-11 (2020).

27. Panwar, A. and Jha, K.N. "Integrating quality and safety in construction scheduling time-cost trade-off model", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 147(2), pp. 1-15 (2021).

28. Churchman, C.W. and Ackoff, R.L. "An approximate measure of value", Journal of the Operations Research Society of America, 2(2), pp. 172-87 (1954).

29. Hwang, C.-L. and Yoon, K. "Methods for multiple attribute decision making", Multiple Attribute Decision Making, Springer, pp. 58-191 (1981).

30. Farmer, T.A. "Testing the robustness of multiattribute utility theory in an applied setting", Decision Sciences, 18(2), pp. 178-93 (1987).

31. Hegazy, T., Computer-Based Construction Project Management: Pearson New International Edition, Pearson Higher Ed., pp. 1-405 (2013).

32. Ozcan-Deniz, G. and Zhu, Y. "Using a life cycle assessment approach for optimizing multi-objectives in construction projects", Computing in Civil Engineering, 10(11), pp. 177-85 (2013).

33. Patel, D., Kikani, K., and Jha, K. "Hazard assessment using consistent fuzzy preference relations approach", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 142(12), pp. 1-10 (2016).

34. Cooke, B. and Williams, P., Construction Planning, Programming and Control, pp. 1-363, John Wiley & Sons (2013).

35. Storn, R. and Price, K. "Differential evolution-a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces", Journal of Global Optimization, 11(4), pp. 341-59 (1997).

36. Price, K., Storn, R.M., and Lampinen, J.A., Differential Evolution: A Practical Approach to Global Optimization, pp. 1-543, Springer Science & Business Media (2006).

37. Das, S. and Suganthan, P.N. "Differential evolution: A survey of the state-of-the-art", IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15(1), pp. 4-31 (2010).

38. Cheng, M.-Y. and Tran, D.-H. "Two-phase differential evolution for the multiobjective optimization of time-cost tradeoffs in resource-constrained construction projects", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 61(3), pp. 450-61 (2014).

39. Tran, D.H. and Long, L.D. "Project scheduling with time, cost and risk trade-off using adaptive multiple objective differential evolution", Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 21(2), pp. 623-38 (2018).

40. Tran, D.-H., Cheng, M.-Y., and Cao, M.-T. "Hybrid multiple objective artificial bee colony with differential evolution for the time-cost-quality tradeoff problem", Knowledge-Based Systems, 74, pp. 176-86 (2015).

41. Coello, C.A.C. and Lamont, G.B., Applications of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms, World Scientific, pp. 1-791 (2004).

42. Reddy, S.R. and Dulikravich, G.S. "Many-objective differential evolution optimization based on reference points: NSDE-R", Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 60(4), pp. 1455-73 (2019).

43. Kalhor, E., Khanzadi, M., Eshtehardian, E., and Afshar, A. "Stochastic time-cost optimization using non-dominated archiving ant colony approach", Automation in Construction, 20(8), pp. 1193-203 (2011).

44. Elbeltagi, E., Hegazy, T., and Grierson, D. "Comparison among five evolutionary-based optimization algorithms", Advanced Engineering Informatics, 19(1), pp. 43-53 (2005).

45. Audet, C., Bigeon, J., Cartier, D., Le Digabel, S., and Salomon, L. "Performance indicators in multiobjective optimization", European Journal of Operational Research, 292(2), pp. 1-50 (2020).

46. Maghsoudlou, H., Afshar-Nadjafi, B., and Niaki, S.T.A. "A multi-objective invasive weeds optimization algorithm for solving multi-skill multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem", Computers & Chemical Engineering, 88, pp. 157-69 (2016).

47. Zheng, D.X., Ng, S.T., and Kumaraswamy, M.M. "Applying Pareto ranking and niche formation to genetic algorithm-based multiobjective time-cost optimization", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 131(1), pp. 81-91 (2005).

48. Zhang, Y. and Ng, S.T. "An ant colony system based decision support system for construction timecost optimization", Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 18(4), pp. 580-9 (2012).

Transactions on Civil Engineering (A)

November and December 2021Pages 3112-3128