Evaluating the nature of captured exhaust soot from a retort heating carbonization system

Document Type : Article


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515, Nigeria

2 - Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515, Nigeria - Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria


Deeper understanding of all aspect of biomass thermochemical conversion is necessary as researchers pursue multiple avenues for energy and environmental sustainability. In this paper, the agglomerative accumulation of soot observed, captured on the inner surface of the exhaust pipe, during the operation of a top-lit updraft biomass gasification system was evaluated to understand its nature and qualities. The soot was evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses. The combustion fuels were bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) stalk and stem of African balsam (Daniellia olivieri). FTIR analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, aromatic double bond, aldehyde, thyiol and carbonyl functional groups. EDS analysis revealed that the elemental carbon content of the soot was found to be 75.05% carbon with 15.13% oxygen. SEM analysis revealed that the soot has a hollow morphology and a lustrous appearance with white tiny grit grains of carbon nano-spheres. The BET analysis revealed that the specific surface area of the soot was 500 m2/g while the pore volume and pore diameter were measured to be 0.218 cc/g and 2.113 nm respectively. The material can find use in water purification purposes, and as an additive in lubricating oils


1    Goyal, H., Seal, D., and Saxena, R.: ‘Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: a review’, Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 12, (2), pp. 504-517 (2008).
2          Adeniyi, A.G., and Ighalo, J.O.: ‘A review of steam reforming of glycerol’, Chemical Papers, 73, (11), pp. 2619-2635 (2019).
3          Adeniyi, A.G., Otoikhian, K.S., and Ighalo, J.O.: ‘Steam Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oil: A Review’, International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 17, (4) (2019).
4          Azlina, W.A., Moghadam, R.A., Salleh, M.A.M., and Alias, A.B.: ‘Air Gasification of agricultural waste in a fluidized bed gasifier’, World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 8, (2), pp. 100-113 (2011).
5          Bulushev, D.A., and Ross, J.R.: ‘Catalysis for conversion of biomass to fuels via pyrolysis and gasification: a review’, Catalysis Today, 171, (1), pp. 1-13 (2011).
6          Carrascosa, M.S.: ‘Reactor design and characterization of biochar’, University of Agder, (2016).
7          Doilov, S.K., Efimov, V.M., Ioonas, R.E., Nazinin, N.A., Piik, E.E., Raad, K.E., Roox, I.K., Serebryannikov, N.D., Shaganov, J.V., and Ananiev, L.S.: ‘Furnace for thermal processing of lump solid fuel’, in Editor (Ed.)^(Eds.): ‘Book Furnace for thermal processing of lump solid fuel’ (Google Patents, 1977, edn.), pp.
8          Panwar, N., Kothari, R., and Tyagi, V.: ‘Thermo chemical conversion of biomass–Eco friendly energy routes’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, (4), pp. 1801-1816 (2012).
9          James, A.M., Yuan, W., Boyette, M.D., and Wang, D.: ‘Airflow and insulation effects on simultaneous syngas and biochar production in a top-lit updraft biomass gasifier’, Renewable Energy,  (2017).
10        Chawdhury, M.A., and Mahkamov, K.: ‘Development of a small downdraft biomass gasifier for developing countries’, J. Sci. Res, 3, (1), pp. 51-64 (2011).
11        Chee, C.S.: ‘The air gasification of wood chips in a downdraft gasifier’, Kansas State University, (1987)
12        Olgun, H., Ozdogan, S., and Yinesor, G.: ‘Results with a bench scale downdraft biomass gasifier for agricultural and forestry residues’, biomass and bioenergy, 35, (1), pp. 572-580 (2011).
13        Zainal, Z., Rifau, A., Quadir, G., and Seetharamu, K.: ‘Experimental investigation of a downdraft biomass gasifier’, Biomass and bioenergy, 23, (4), pp. 283-289 (2002).
14        Adeniyi, A.G., Ighalo, J.O., and Onifade, D.V.: ‘Production of biochar from elephant grass (Pernisetum purpureum) using an updraft biomass gasifier with retort heating’, Biofuels, pp. 1-8 (2019).
15        Adeniyi, A., Ighalo, J., Onifade, D., and Popoola, A.: ‘Production of Hybrid Biochar by Retort-Heating of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum Purpureum) and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) for Waste Management and Product Development’(2020).
16        Adeniyi, A.G., Ighalo, J.O., and Onifade, D.V.: ‘Production of Bio-char from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) fibers using an Updraft Biomass Gasifier with Retort Heating’, Combustion science and technology, 193, (1), pp. 60-74 (2019).
17        Adeniyi, A.G., Ighalo, J.O., and Onifade, D.V.: ‘Biochar from the thermochemical conversion of orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and Albedo: product quality and potential applications’, Chemistry Africa, 3, (2), pp. 439-448 (2020).
18        Ighalo, J.O., Onifade, D.V., and Adeniyi, A.G.: ‘Retort-heating carbonisation of almond (Terminalia catappa) leaves and LDPE waste for biochar production: evaluation of product quality’, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, pp. 1-9 (2021).
19        Adeniyi, A.G., Abdulkareem, S.A., Ighalo, J.O., Onifade, D.V., and Sanusi, S.K.: ‘Thermochemical Co-conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse-LDPE Hybrid Waste into Biochar’, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, (2020).
20        Adelodun, A.A., Adeniyi, A.G., Ighalo, J.O., Onifade, D.V., and Arowoyele, L.T.: ‘Thermochemical conversion of oil palm Fiber-LDPE hybrid waste into biochar’, Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 14, (6), pp. 1313-1323 (2020).
21        Sarkar, I., Raman, R., Jayanth, K., Jain, A., and Vora, K.C.: ‘Characterization of Soot Microstructure for Diesel and Biodiesel Using Diesel Particulate Filter’, in (eds.), U.C.e.a. (Ed.): ‘Innovative Design, Analysis and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering’ (Springer, 2019).
22        Manoj, B., Sreelaksmi, S., Mohan, A.N., and Kunjomana, A.G.: ‘Characterization of Diesel Soot from the Combustion in Engine by X-ray and Spectroscopic techniques’, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 7, pp. 3215 - 3221 (2012).
23        C.N, K., and V, A.M.S.: ‘Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes from engine soot and its application as an additive in Schizochytrium biodiesel fuelled DICI engine’, Energy Reports, 6, pp. 2126-2139 (2020).
24        Atiku, F.A., Mitchell, E.J.S., Lea-Langton, A.R., Jones, J.M., Williams, A., and Bartle, K.D.: ‘The Impact of Fuel Properties on the Composition of Soot Produced by the Combustion of Residential Solid Fuels in a Domestic Stove’, Fuel Processing Technology, 151 (2016).
25        Knauer, M., Carrara, M., Rothe, D., Niessner, R., and Ivleva, N.P.: ‘Changes in structure and reactivity of soot during oxidation and gasification by oxygen, studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy and temperature programmed oxidation’, Aerosol Science and Technology, 43, (1), pp. 1-8 (2009).
26        Qin, K., Jensen, P.A., Lin, W., and Jensen, A.D.: ‘Biomass gasification behavior in an entrained flow reactor: gas product distribution and soot formation’, Energy & Fuels, 26, (9), pp. 5992-6002 (2012).
27        Kowthaman, C.N., and Arul Mozhi Selvan, V.: ‘Waste to green fuels: Kinetic study of low lipid waste algae for energy development’, Bioresource Technology Reports, 11, pp. 100510 (2020).
28        Ignatov, S., Sennikov, P., Razuvaev, A., and Chuprov, L.: ‘Binary molecular complexes of silicon tetrafluoride with water, methanol, and dimethyl ether. Quantum-chemical study’, Russian chemical bulletin, 50, (12), pp. 2316-2324 (2001).
29        Ramachandran, S., Nandhakumar, S., and DhanaRaju, M.D.: ‘Development and in vitro evaluation of biodegradable chitosan microspheres loaded with ranitidine and cross linked with glutaraldehyde’, Int. J. Pharm. Tech. Res, 1, pp. 488-496 (2011).
30        Lal, V., Khalizov, A.F., Lin, Y., Galvan, M.D., Connell, B.T., and Zhang, R.: ‘Heterogeneous reactions of epoxides in acidic media’, The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 116, (24), pp. 6078-6090 (2012).
31        Thirunavukkuarasu, K.: ‘Carbon nanostructures under high pressure studied by infrared spectroscopy’, PhD Thesis, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät, Universität Augsburg, (2009).
32        Thomas, M.J., and Judes, J.: ‘Development and characterization of metal-dopant-based zirconia via an electrospinning process for scientific applications’, Materiali in tehnologije, 52, (6), pp. 751-761 (2018).
33        Zhang, Y., Zhu, T., Fang, Y., Liu, H., Gu, Q., and Zhu, W.: ‘Carbonarones A and B, new bioactive γ-pyrone and α-pyridone derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus carbonarius’, The Journal of antibiotics, 60, (2), pp. 153 (2007).
34        Matthews, S.: ‘Structural changes of rice straw pre-treated with Paenibacillus and Aspergillus fumigatus’, International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 5, (4) (2016).
35        Cain, J.P., Gassman, P.L., Wang, H., and Laskin, A.: ‘Micro-FTIR study of soot chemical composition—evidence of aliphatic hydrocarbons on nascent soot surfaces’, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 12, (20), pp. 5206-5218 (2010).
36        Mohan, A.N., and Manoj, B.: ‘Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanospheres from hydrocarbon soot’, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci, 7, (10), pp. 9537-9549 (2012).
37        Bladt, H., Schmid, J., Kireeva, E.D., Popovicheva, O.B., Perseantseva, N.M., Timofeev, M.A., Heister, K., Uihlein, J., Ivleva, N.P., and Niessner, R.: ‘Impact of Fe content in laboratory-produced soot aerosol on its composition, structure, and thermo-chemical properties’, Aerosol Science and Technology, 46, (12), pp. 1337-1348 (2012).
38        Zenobi, M.C., Luengo, C.V., Avena, M.J., and Rueda, E.H.: ‘An ATR-FTIR study of different phosphonic acids adsorbed onto boehmite’, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 75, (4), pp. 1283-1288 (2010).
39        Ramachandran, E., and Natarajan, S.: ‘XRD, thermal and FTIR studies on gel grown DL‐Phenylalanine crystals’, Crystal Research and Technology: Journal of Experimental and Industrial Crystallography, 42, (6), pp. 617-620 (2007).
40        Qu, X., Fu, H., Mao, J., Ran, Y., Zhang, D., and Zhu, D.: ‘Chemical and structural properties of dissolved black carbon released from biochars’, Carbon, 96, pp. 759-767 (2016).
41        Usman, A.R., Abduljabbar, A., Vithanage, M., Ok, Y.S., Ahmad, M., Ahmad, M., Elfaki, J., Abdulazeem, S.S., and Al-Wabel, M.I.: ‘Biochar production from date palm waste: charring temperature induced changes in composition and surface chemistry’, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 115, pp. 392-400 (2015).
42        Liu, P., Liu, W.-J., Jiang, H., Chen, J.-J., Li, W.-W., and Yu, H.-Q.: ‘Modification of bio-char derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass and its application in removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution’, Bioresource technology, 121, pp. 235-240 (2012).
43        Liu, W.-J., Zeng, F.-X., Jiang, H., and Zhang, X.-S.: ‘Preparation of high adsorption capacity bio-chars from waste biomass’, Bioresource technology, 102, (17), pp. 8247-8252 (2011).
44        Keiluweit, M., Nico, P.S., Johnson, M.G., and Kleber, M.: ‘Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)’, Environmental science & technology, 44, (4), pp. 1247-1253 (2010).
45        He, S., and Chen, W.: ‘Application of biomass-derived flexible carbon cloth coated with MnO2 nanosheets in supercapacitors’, Journal of Power Sources, 294, pp. 150-158 (2015).
46        Ling, Z., Wang, Z., Zhang, M., Yu, C., Wang, G., Dong, Y., Liu, S., Wang, Y., and Qiu, J.: ‘Sustainable synthesis and assembly of biomass‐derived B/N co‐doped carbon nanosheets with ultrahigh aspect ratio for high‐performance supercapacitors’, Advanced Functional Materials, 26, (1), pp. 111-119 (2016).
47        Bello, A., Manyala, N., Barzegar, F., Khaleed, A.A., Momodu, D.Y., and Dangbegnon, J.K.: ‘Renewable pine cone biomass derived carbon materials for supercapacitor application’, Rsc Advances, 6, (3), pp. 1800-1809 (2016).
48        Kim, J., Song, J., Lee, S.-M., and Jung, J.: ‘Application of iron-modified biochar for arsenite removal and toxicity reduction’, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, (2019).
49        Wang, P., Tang, L., Wei, X., Zeng, G., Zhou, Y., Deng, Y., Wang, J., Xie, Z., and Fang, W.: ‘Synthesis and application of iron and zinc doped biochar for removal of p-nitrophenol in wastewater and assessment of the influence of co-existed Pb (II)’, Applied Surface Science, 392, pp. 391-401 (2017).
50        Guo, M.-f., Cai, Z.-b., Zhang, Z.-c., and Zhu, M.-h.: ‘Characterization and lubrication performance of diesel soot nanoparticles as oil lubricant additives’, RSC Advances, 5, (123), pp. 101965-101974 (2015).
51        Hu, E., Hu, X., Liu, T., Fang, L., Dearn, K.D., and Xu, H.: ‘The role of soot particles in the tribological behavior of engine lubricating oils’, Wear, 304, (1-2), pp. 152-161 (2013).
52        George, S., Balla, S., and Gautam, M.: ‘Effect of diesel soot contaminated oil on engine wear’, Wear, 262, (9-10), pp. 1113-1122 (2007).
53        Chuan, L., Hui, S., Jun, Z., Bo, W., Qiangqiang, Z., Yuan, Z., and Xianguo, H.: ‘Novel Approach for Improved Tribological Behavior of Biodiesel Soot in Liquid Paraffin’, China Petroleum Processing & Petrochemical Technology, 21, (1), pp. 101-109 (2019).
54        Li, C., Li, M., Wang, X., Feng, W., Zhang, Q., Wu, B., and Hu, X.: ‘Novel Carbon Nanoparticles Derived from Biodiesel Soot as Lubricant Additives’, Nanomaterials, 9, (8), pp. 1115 (2019).
55        Kakunuri, M., and Sharma, C.S.: ‘Candle soot derived fractal-like carbon nanoparticles network as high-rate lithium ion battery anode material’, Electrochimica Acta, 180, pp. 353-359 (2015).
56        Growney, D.J., Mykhaylyk, O.O., Middlemiss, L., Fielding, L.A., Derry, M.J., Aragrag, N., Lamb, G.D., and Armes, S.P.: ‘Is carbon black a suitable model colloidal substrate for diesel soot?’, Langmuir, 31, (38), pp. 10358-10369 (2015).
57        Raj, C.J., Kim, B.C., Cho, B.-B., Cho, W.-J., Kim, S.-J., Park, S.Y., and Yu, K.H.: ‘Electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of functionalized candle flame carbon soot’, Bulletin of Materials Science, 39, (1), pp. 241-248 (2016).
58        Ighalo, J.O., Adeniyi, A.G., Eletta, O.A.A., and Arowoyele, L.T.: ‘Competitive Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II) from Aqueous Media Using Biochar from Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Fibers: A Kinetic and Equilibrium Study’, Indian Chemical Engineer, pp. 1-11 (2020).
59        Ighalo, J.O., Arowoyele, L.T., Ogunniyi, S., Adeyanju, C.A., Oladipo-Emmanuel, F.M., Belgore, R.O., Omisore, M.O., and Adeniyi, A.G.: ‘Utilisation of Biomass and Hybrid Biochar from Elephant Grass and Low Density Polyethylene for the Competitive Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II) from Aqueous Media’, Recent Innovations in Chemical Engineering, 13, pp. 1-11 (2020).
60        Trubetskaya, A., Kling, J., Ershag, O., Attard, T.M., and Schröder, E.: ‘Removal of phenol and chlorine from wastewater using steam activated biomass soot and tire carbon black’, Journal of hazardous materials, 365, pp. 846-856 (2019).
61        Ighalo, J.O., Ajala, O.J., Adeniyi, A.G., Babatunde, E.O., and Ajala, M.A.: ‘Ecotoxicology of Glyphosate and Recent Advances in its Mitigation by Adsorption’, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, (3), pp. 2655–2668 (2021).
62        Oba, S.N., Ighalo, J.O., Aniagor, C.O., and Igwegbe, C.A.: ‘Removal of ibuprofen from aqueous media by adsorption: A comprehensive review’, Science of the Total Eanvironment, pp. 146608 (2021).
63        Onifade, D.V., Ighalo, J.O., Adeniyi, A.G., and Hameed, K.: ‘Morphological and Thermal Properties of Polystyrene Composite Reinforced with Biochar from Plantain Stalk Fibre’, Materials International, 2, (2), pp. 150-156 (2020).
64        Adeniyi, A.G., Abdulkareem, S.A., Ighalo, J.O., Onifade, D.V., Adeoye, S.A., and Sampson, A.E.: ‘Morphological and thermal properties of polystyrene composite reinforced with biochar from elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum)’, Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, pp. 1-16 (2020).
65        Mathew, T., Dierkes, W.K., Talma, A., et al. \Carbon particles coated with polymer  lms, methods for their production and uses thereof", Google Patents (2016).
66        Otoikhian, K.S., Adeniyi, A.G., Dada, A.M., and Ighalo, J.O.: ‘Assessment of Carbonised Wood-Flour Fillers on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber Vulcanisates’, European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 3, (4) (2019).
67        Patai, S.: ‘The chemistry of peroxides’ (John Wiley & Sons, 2015. 2015)
68        Hesari, Z., Shirkavand Hadavand, B., and Mahmoodi Hashemi, M.: ‘Fabrication and study of structural, optical and electrical properties of UV curable conductive polyurethane acrylate films containing polyaniline-Co3O4 nanocomposites’, Progress in Color, Colorants and Coatings, , 9, (1), pp. 41-52 (2016).
69        Sahoo, B.N., and Kandasubramanian, B.: ‘Photoluminescent carbon soot particles derived from controlled combustion of camphor for superhydrophobic applications’, RSC Advances, , 4, (22), pp. 11331-11342 (2014).