Taguchi optimization of fused deposition modeling process parameters on mechanical characteristics of PLA + filament material

Document Type : Article


1 Department of Mechanical and Metal Technologies, Cumayeri Vocational School, Duzce University, 81700 Duzce, Turkey

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Duzce University, 81620, Duzce, Turkey


This study was realized to determine effects of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process parameters on mechanical characteristics with Taguchi optimization method. Three different FDM process parameters used for modified Polylactic Acid (PLA+) filament material; filling structures (Rectilinear, Triangular, and Full Honeycomb), occupancy rates (10, 30, and 50 %) and table orientation (0, 60, and - 45°) was specified as variable parameters for experiments. Other parameters kept fixed for each tensile and izod impact test samples were printed according to the ISO 527 – Type IV and ISO 180-Type I standards. The results found tensile strength values and izod impact values directly proportionate with occupancy rate. The difference between the estimation model and the results of experiments did not exceed the maximum value of 1.8 %. Thus, using the equations derived from this optimization, printing parameters can be determined for the desired tensile strength and izod impact values. By improving the material properties using modified PLA+ filament material as observed in the results, it will be possible to provide support for researchers, design engineers and manufacturer to optimize raw-material usage and margin.


1. Picard, M., Mohanty, A.K., and Misra, M. "Recent advances in additive manufacturing of engineering thermoplastics: challenges and opportunities", RSC Advances, 10(59), pp. 36058-36089 (2020).
2. Cevik, U. and Kam, M. "A review study on mechanical properties of obtained products by FDM method and metal/polymer composite filament production", Journal of Nanomaterials, Special Issue-2020 Micro and Nano Sensors from Additive Manufacturing, 2020(1) pp. 1-9 (2020).
3. Nadagouda, M.N., Ginn, M., and Rastogi, V. "A review of 3D printing techniques for environmental applications", Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 28(1), pp. 173-178 (2020).
4. Singh, S., Ramakrishna, S., and Berto, F. "3D Printing of polymer composites: A short review", Material Design & Processing Communications, 2(2), pp. 97-110 (2020).
5. Zhou, L.Y., Fu, J., and He, Y. "A review of 3D Printing technologies for soft polymer materials", Advanced Functional Materials, 30(28), pp. 2000187-2000225 (2020).
6. Vyavahare, S., Teraiya, S., Panghal, D., et al. "Fused deposition modelling: a review", Rapid Prototyping Journal, 26(1), pp. 176-201 (2020).
7. Huang, J., Chen, Q., Jiang, H., et al. "A survey of design methods for material extrusion polymer 3D printing", Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 15(2), pp. 148-162 (2020).
8. Son, T.A., Minh, P.S., and Thanh, T.D. "Effect of 3D printing parameters on the tensile strength of products", Key Engineering Materials, 863(1) pp. 103-108 (2020).
9. Lalegani Dezaki, M. and Mohd Ariffin, M.K.A. "The effects of combined infill patterns on mechanical properties in FDM process", Polymers, 12(12), pp. 2792- 2812 (2020).
10. Suteja, T.J. and Soesanti, A. "Mechanical properties of 3D printed polylactic acid product for various infill design parameters: A review", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1569(4), pp. 042010-042017 (2020).
11. Kam, M., Saruhan, H., and Ipekci, A. "Investigation the effect of 3D printer system vibrations on surface roughness of the printed products", Duzce Universitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, 7(2), pp. 147-157 (2019).
12. Kam, M., Saruhan, H., and Ipekci, A. "Investigation the effects of 3D printer system vibrations on mechanical properties of the printed products", Sigma J. Eng and Nat. Sci., 36(3), pp. 655-666 (2018).
13. Kam, M., Ipekci, A., and Saruhan, H. "Investigation of 3d printing filling structures effect on mechanical properties and surface roughness of PET-G material products", Gaziosmanpasa Bilimsel Arastrma Dergisi, 6(Special Issue: ISMSIT2017), pp. 114-121 (2017).
14. Ipekci, A., Kam, M., and Saruhan, H. "Investigation of 3D printing occupancy rates effect on mechanical properties and surface roughness of PET-G material products", Journal of New Results in Science, 7(2), pp. 1-8 (2018).
15. Kam, M., Saruhan, H., and Ipekci, A. "Farkldoldurma sekillerinin uc boyutlu yazclarda uretilen urunlerin mukavemetine etkisi", Duzce  Universitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, 7(3), pp. 951-960 (2019).
16. Sheoran, A.J., and Kumar, H. "Fused deposition modeling process parameters optimization and effect on mechanical properties and part quality: Review and reflection on present research", Materials Today: Proceedings, International Conference on Mechanical and Energy Technologies, 21, Greater Noida, India, pp. 1659-1672 (2020).
17. Wibawa, T., Mastrisiswadi, H., and Ismianti, I. "3D print parameter optimization: A literature review", Proceeding of LPPM UPN "Veteran" Yogyakarta Conference Series 2020|Engineering and Science Series, 1, Indonesia, Yogyakarta, pp. 146-151 (2020).
18. Kam, M., Ipekci, A., and SengUl, O. "Effect of FDM process parameters on the mechanical properties and production costs of 3D printed PowerABS samples", International Journal of Analytical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis, 7(3), pp. 77-90 (2020).
19. Vishwas, M., Basavaraj, C.K., and Vinyas, M. "Experimental investigation using Taguchi method to optimize process parameters of fused deposition modeling for ABS and nylon materials", Materials Today: Proceedings, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 5, Tamil Nadu, India, pp. 7106-7114 (2018).
20. Mahesh, V., Joladarashi, S., and Kulkarni, S.M. "Development and mechanical characterization of novel polymer-based  flexible composite and optimization of stacking sequences using VIKOR and PSI techniques", Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, Online First, https://doi.org/10.1177/0892705719864619 (2019).
21. Di Angelo, L., Di Stefano, P., and Guardiani, E."Search for the optimal build direction in additive manufacturing technologies: A review", Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 4(3), pp. 71- 97 (2020).
22. Vishwas, M. and Basavaraj, C.K. "Studies on optimizing process parameters of fused deposition modelling technology for ABS", Materials Today: Proceedings, International Conference on Advanced Materials, Manufacturing, Management and Thermal Science, 4, Tumkur, India, pp. 10994-11003 (2017).
23. Basavaraj, C.K. and Vishwas, M. "Studies on effect of fused deposition modelling process parameters on ultimate tensile strength and dimensional accuracy of nylon", IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, International Conference on Advances in Materials and Manufacturing  Applications, Bangalore, India, pp. 012035-12047 (2016).
24. Mahesh, V., Joladarashi, S., and Kulkarni, S.M. "Tribo-mechanical characterization and optimization of green flexible composites", Emerging Materials Research, 9(3), pp. 887-896 (2020).
25. Abeykoon, C., Sri-Amphorn, P., and Fernando, A."Optimization of fused deposition modeling parameters for improved PLA and ABS 3D printed structures", International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture, 3(3), pp. 284-297 (2020).
26. Carlier, E., Marquette, S., Peerboom, C., et al. Investigation of the parameters used in fused deposition modeling of poly (lactic acid) to optimize 3D printing sessions", International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 565(2019), pp. 367-377 (2019).
27. Fratila, D. and Rotaru, H. "Additive manufacturing - A sustainable manufacturing route", 4th International Conference on Computing and Solutions in Manufacturing Engineering, 94, Brasov, Romania, pp. 03004-03017 (2017).
28. http://www.esun3d.net/products/142.html ESUN Corp., Accessed: 13.05.2021 (2021).
29. Asim, M., Zubair Khan, M., Alam Khan, L., et al. "An integrated approach of quality for polymer composite manufacturing validated and optimized through Taguchi method", Scientia Iranica B, 24(4), pp. 1985- 1995 (2017).
30. Dev, S. and Srivastava, R. "Experimental investigation and optimization of FDM process parameters for material and mechanical strength", Materials Today: Proceedings, 10th International Conference of Materials Processing and Characterization, 26, Mathura, India, pp. 1995-1999 (2020).
31. Nguyen, V.H., Huynh, T.N., Nguyen, T.P., et al. "Single and multi-objective optimization of processing parameters for fused deposition modeling in 3D printing technology", International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, 17(1), pp. 7542-7551 (2020).
32. Dey, A. and Yodo, N. "A systematic survey of FDM process parameter optimization and their influence on part characteristics", Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 3(3), pp. 64-94 (2019).
33. Kam, M., Ipekci, A. and Sengul, O. "Investigation of the effect of FDM process parameters on mechanical properties of 3D printed PA12 samples using Taguchi method", Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, (First published online: April 2021)doi:10.1177/08927057211006459 (2021).