Document Type : Article

**Authors**

Department of Mechanical Engineering, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

**Abstract**

The biggest application of the fiber-reinforced composites are in the field of military and commercial aircrafts. Carbon fibers either alone or with the Kevlar 49 fibers, are widely used as main material in many aero plane wing, fuselage and empennage components. Composites materials have wide applications in different industries because of it has very different properties from the metals and polymers. In the drilling of Carbon/Epoxy Composites the cut surface quality is very much dependent on the drilling parameters set during drilling which further effect the strength of the hole during extension/compression loading. In this research, Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composite material is drilled with the standard carbide drill bit and Open Hole Compression (OHC) tests are performed on the Universal Testing Machine. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique is used to find out the strain distribution around the hole during compression loading. From the experimental method and DIC, maximum strength of carbon epoxy composite is achieved by drilling at 1600-2400 mm/min in presence of notch. It was also observed that failure of the structure is dependent on the drilling feed rate and 1600-2400 mm/min was the optimized drilling range.

**Keywords**

References:

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32. Qi, Z., Zhang, K., Li, Y., Liu, S., and Cheng, H. "Critical thrust force predicting modeling for delaminationfree drilling of metal-FRP stacks", Composite Structures, 107, pp. 604-609 (2014).

33. Goutianos, S., Galiotis, C., and Peijs, T. "Compressive failure mechanisms in multi-fibre microcomposites", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 35(4), pp. 461-475 (2004).

34. Suemasu, H., Takahashi, H., and Ishikawa, T. "On failure mechanisms of composite laminates with an open hole subjected to compressive load", Composites Science and Technology, 66(5), pp. 634-641 (2006).

35. Saha, M., Prabhakaran, R., and Waters Jr, W. "Compressive behavior of pultruded composite plates with circular holes", Composite Structures, 65(1), pp. 29-36 (2004).

36. Poon, C., Bellinger, N., Gould, R., and Raizenne, M. "Damage progression nuder compressive loading in composite laminates containing an open hole", National Research Council of Canada Ottawa (Ontario) Inst for Aerospace Research (1992).

37. Zako, M., Uetsuji, Y., and Kurashiki, T. "Finite element analysis of damaged woven fabric composite materials", Composites Science and Technology, 63(3- 4), pp. 507-516 (2003).

38. Carvalho, N., Pinho, S., and Robinson, P. "Compressive failure of 2D woven composites", Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Composite Materials, Edinburgh, UK: IOM Communications Ltd (2009).

39. Soutis, C., Fleck, N., and Smith, P. "Failure prediction technique for compression loaded carbon fibre-epoxy laminate with open holes", Journal of Composite Materials, 25(11), pp. 1476-1498 (1991).

40. Jones, E., Documentation for Matlab-based DIC code, University of Illinois (2013).

41. PI, L.Y., Smith, L., Gothekar, M.A., and Chen, M.X., Measure Strain Distribution Using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) for Tensile Tests, Oakland University (2010).

2. Imran, M., Khan, R., and Badshah, S. "Experimental, analytical, and finite element vibration analyses of delaminated composite plates", Scientia Iranica, 28(1), pp. 231-240 (2021).

3. Ahmadi, M., Ansari, R., and Rouhi, H. "Studying buckling of composite rods made of hybrid carbon fiber/carbon nanotube-reinforced polyimide using multi-scale FEM", Scientia Iranica, Transactions B, Mechanical Engineering, 27(1), pp. 252-261 (2020).

4. Bahl, S. "Axisymmetric finite element analysis of single fiber push-out test for stainless steel wire reinforced aluminum matrix composites", Materials Today: Proceedings, 28(3), pp. 1605-1611 (2020).

5. Bahl, S. and Bagha, A.K. "Finite element modeling of the fiber-matrix interface in polymer composites", Journal of Composites Science, 58(4), pp. 1-13 (2020).

6. Kim, T., Shin, J., Lee, K., Jung, Y., Lee, S.B., and Yang, S.J. "A universal surface modification method of carbon nanotube fibers with enhanced tensile strength", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 140, pp. 1-5 (2021).

7. Mulenga, T.K., Ude, A.U., and Vivekanandhan, C."Techniques for modelling and optimizing the mechanical properties of natural fiber composites: A review", Fibers, 9(1), pp. 1-17 (2021).

8. Imran, M., Rafiullah, K., and Badshah, S. "Vibration analysis of cracked composite laminated plate and beam structures", Romanian Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, 15(1), pp. 3-13 (2018).

9. Imran, M., Khan, R., and Badshah, S. "Finite element analysis to investigate the influence of delamination size, stacking sequence and boundary conditions on the vibration behavior of composite plate", Iranian Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, 16(1), pp. 2-9 (2019).

10. Bagha, A.K. and Bahl, S. "Finite element analysis of VGCF/pp reinforced square representative volume element to predict its mechanical properties for different loadings", Materials Today: Proceedings, 39, pp. 54-59 (2021).

11. Imran, M., Khan, R., and Badshah, S. "A review on the vibration analysis of laminated composite plate", Pakistan Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research Series A: Physical Sciences, 62(2), pp. 124-134 (2019).

12. Imran, M., Badshah, S., and Khan, R. "Vibration analysis of cracked composite laminated plate: A review", Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 38(3), pp. 705-716 (2019).

13. Muhammad, I., Rafiullah, K., and Saeed, B. "A review on the vibration analysis of laminated composite plate", Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series A: Physical Sciences, 62(2), pp. 12- 18 (2019).

14. Saini, M.K., Bagha, A.K., Kumar, S., and Bahl, S. "Finite element analysis for predicting the vibration characteristics of natural fiber reinforced epoxy composites", Materials Today: Proceedings, 41, pp. 223- 227 (2021).

15. Imran, M., Khan, R., and Badshah, S. "A review on the effect of delamination on the performance of composite plate", Pakistan Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research Series A: Physical Sciences, 61(3), pp. 173-182 (2018).

16. Bagha, A.K. and Bahl, S. "Strain energy and finite element analysis to predict the mechanical properties of vapor grown carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene nanocomposites", Materials Today: Proceedings, 41, pp. 265-268 (2021).

17. Barbero, E.J.,Introduction to Composite Materials Design, CRC press (2017).

18. Malhotra, S. "Some studies on drilling of fibrous composites", Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 24, pp. 291-300 (1990).

19. Tagliaferri, V., Caprino, G., and Diterlizzi, A. "Effect of drilling parameters on the finish and mechanical properties of GFRP composites", International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 30(1), pp. 77- 84 (1990).

20. Hocheng, H. and Puw, H. "On drilling characteristics of fiber-reinforced thermoset and thermoplastics", International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 32(4), pp. 583-592 (1992).

21. Caprino, G. and Tagliaferri, V. "Damage development in drilling glass fibre reinforced plastics", International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 35(6), pp. 817-829 (1995).

22. Piquet, R., Ferret, B., Lachaud, F., and Swider, P. "Experimental analysis of drilling damage in thin carbon/epoxy plate using special drills", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 31(10), pp. 1107-1115 (2000).

23. Lachaud, F., Piquet, R., Collombet, F., and Surcin, L. "Drilling of composite structures", Composite Structures, 52(3-4), pp. 511-516 (2001).

24. Davim, J.P. and Reis, P. "Drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics manufactured by autoclaveexperimental and statistical study", Materials & Design, 24(5), pp. 315-324 (2003).

25. Bhatkulkar, H. and Modak, J. "Design and development of nursery fertilizer mixer energized by human powered ywheel motor", International Journal For Research in Emerging Science and Technology, 1, pp. 69-73 (2014).

26. Rajmohan, T. and Palanikumar, K. "Application of the central composite design in optimization of machining parameters in drilling hybrid metal matrix composites", Measurement, 46(4), pp. 1470-1481 (2013).

27. Sadek, A., Meshreki, M., and Attia, M. "Characterization and optimization of orbital drilling of woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates", CIRP Annals, 61(1), pp. 123-126 (2012).

28. Phadnis, V.A., Makhdum, F., Roy, A., and Silberschmidt, V.V. "Drilling in carbon/epoxy composites: experimental investigations and finite element implementation", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 47, pp. 41-51 (2013).

29. Karimi, N.Z., Heidary, H., Minak, G., and Ahmadi, M. "Effect of the drilling process on the compression behavior of glass/epoxy laminates", Composite Structures, 98, pp. 59-68 (2013).

30. Durao, L.M.P., Tavares, J.M.R., de Albuquerque, V.H.C., and Goncalves, D.J. "Damage evaluation of drilled carbon/epoxy laminates based on area assessment methods", Composite Structures, 96, pp. 576-583 (2013).

31. Feito, N., Lopez-Puente, J., Santiuste, C., and Miguelez, M. "Numerical prediction of delamination in CFRP drilling", Composite Structures, 108, pp. 677- 683 (2014).

32. Qi, Z., Zhang, K., Li, Y., Liu, S., and Cheng, H. "Critical thrust force predicting modeling for delaminationfree drilling of metal-FRP stacks", Composite Structures, 107, pp. 604-609 (2014).

33. Goutianos, S., Galiotis, C., and Peijs, T. "Compressive failure mechanisms in multi-fibre microcomposites", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 35(4), pp. 461-475 (2004).

34. Suemasu, H., Takahashi, H., and Ishikawa, T. "On failure mechanisms of composite laminates with an open hole subjected to compressive load", Composites Science and Technology, 66(5), pp. 634-641 (2006).

35. Saha, M., Prabhakaran, R., and Waters Jr, W. "Compressive behavior of pultruded composite plates with circular holes", Composite Structures, 65(1), pp. 29-36 (2004).

36. Poon, C., Bellinger, N., Gould, R., and Raizenne, M. "Damage progression nuder compressive loading in composite laminates containing an open hole", National Research Council of Canada Ottawa (Ontario) Inst for Aerospace Research (1992).

37. Zako, M., Uetsuji, Y., and Kurashiki, T. "Finite element analysis of damaged woven fabric composite materials", Composites Science and Technology, 63(3- 4), pp. 507-516 (2003).

38. Carvalho, N., Pinho, S., and Robinson, P. "Compressive failure of 2D woven composites", Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Composite Materials, Edinburgh, UK: IOM Communications Ltd (2009).

39. Soutis, C., Fleck, N., and Smith, P. "Failure prediction technique for compression loaded carbon fibre-epoxy laminate with open holes", Journal of Composite Materials, 25(11), pp. 1476-1498 (1991).

40. Jones, E., Documentation for Matlab-based DIC code, University of Illinois (2013).

41. PI, L.Y., Smith, L., Gothekar, M.A., and Chen, M.X., Measure Strain Distribution Using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) for Tensile Tests, Oakland University (2010).

Transactions on Mechanical Engineering (B)

November and December 2021Pages 3201-3215