Iran is facing with a serious water crisis, which must be addressed if Iran is to move forward in becoming a developed nation. Iran’s water shortage problem has been caused by multiple factors including limited surface and groundwater availability. The current water shortage in Iran is an issue that can only be resolved by considering the entire water portfolio. One alternative solution to the water shortage problem in Iran is to adapt an integrated sustainable water management system though efficient utilization of the existing water supplies including the adoption of an effective water reclamation and water reuse program. Reclaimed water could be used to augment existing water supply sources for both non-potable and potable purposes. This introductory paper is part of a series of articles documenting the use of reclaimed water for potable reuse. Topics covered in this introductory paper include: (1) an introduction to the water situation in Iran, (2) identification of the types of potable reuse, (3) presentation of successful potable reuse projects including lessons learned, (4) brief summary of key implementation components of a successful potable reuse program, and (5) special challenges and barriers on implementation of potable reuse in Iran, and (6) the benefits expected from potable reuse program in Iran. Additional information on technical aspects including operations and monitoring, and more detail information on the implementation of water reuse program will be presented in the future articles.