The effect of sintering pressure on the wear behavior of bronze (85/15) alloys produced using hip method

Document Type : Research Note


Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey


In this study, a new material was produced using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) method, upon which Co and Ni in different ratios were added into a CuSn-based (85/15) alloy. HIP method has very important advantages in that it allows pressure and temperature to be applied simultaneously during the process. In the study, constant sintering temperature of 800 °C, a constant sintering time of 15 min, and two different sintering pressures of 20 and 30 MPa were used. The sintering process was performed under a vacuum after the initial burning process. The produced samples were subjected to various metallographic processes as well as SEM and EDS analyses. Afterwards, wear test was carried out on the samples. The study investigated the effects of Ni and Co additions and the sintering pressure on the wear behavior. It was found that as the amount of Co and the sintering pressure increased, the wear resistance increased.


1.        Thornber, S. M., Heath, P. G., Da Costa, G. P., Stennett, M. C., and Hyatt, N. C., “The effect of pre-treatment parameters on the quality of glass-ceramic wasteforms for plutonium immobilisation, consolidated by hot isostatic pressing”, J. Nucl. Mater., 485, pp. 253–261 (2017).
2.        Weber, W. J., Navrotsky, A., Stefanovsky, S., Vance, E. R., and Vernaz, E., “Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization”, MRS Bull., 34(01), pp. 46–53 (2009).
3.        Atkinson, H. V. and Davies, S., “Fundamental aspects of hot isostatic pressing: An overview”, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 31(12), pp. 2981–3000 (2000).
4.        Methods, C., Mech, A., Nguyen, C. Van, Deng, Y., Bezold, A., and Broeckmann, C., “ScienceDirect A combined model to simulate the powder densification and shape changes during hot isostatic pressing”, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 315, pp. 302–315 (2017).
5.        Samarov, V., Barre, C., Khomyakov, E., and Haykin, R., “No Title” (n.d.).
6.        Van Nguyen, C., Bezold, A., and Broeckmann, C., “Inclusion of initial powder distribution in FEM modelling of near net shape PM hot isostatic pressed components”, Powder Metall., 57(4), pp. 295–303 (2014).
7.        Van Nguyen, C., Bezold, A., and Broeckmann, C., “Anisotropic shrinkage during hip of encapsulated powder”, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 226, pp. 134–145 (2015).
8.        Weddeling, A. and Theisen, W., “Energy and time saving processing: A combination of hot isostatic pressing and heat treatment”, Met. Powder Rep., 72(5), pp. 345–348 (2017).
9.        Almangour, B., Grzesiak, D., and Yang, J., “Selective laser melting of TiB 2 / 316L stainless steel composites : The roles of powder preparation and hot isostatic pressing post-treatment”, Powder Technol., 309, pp. 37–48 (2017).
10.      Islam, A. and Farhat, Z. N., “The influence of porosity and hot isostatic pressing treatment on wear characteristics of cast and P / M aluminum alloys”, Wear, 271(9–10), pp. 1594–1601 (2011).
11.      Yalcin, B., “Effect of porosity on the mechanical properties and wear performance of 2% copper reinforced sintered steel used in shock absorber piston production”, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 25(5), pp. 577–582 (2009).
12.      Ye, H. Z., Li, D. Y., and Eadie, R. L., “Influences of porosity on mechanical and wear performance of pseudoelastic TiNi-matrix composites”, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 10(2), pp. 178–185 (2001).
13.      Wang, C., Yue, G., Bai, G., Pan, L., and Zhang, B., “Compaction behavior and permeability property tests of preforms in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding using a combined device”, Meas. J. Int. Meas. Confed., 90, pp. 357–364 (2016).
14.      Qiu, C. L., Attallah, M. M., Wu, X. H., and Andrews, P., “Materials Science & Engineering A Influence of hot isostatic pressing temperature on microstructure and tensile properties of a nickel-based superalloy powder”, 564, pp. 176–185 (2013).
15.      Fu, L., Han, W., Gong, K., Bengtsson, S., Dong, C., Zhao, L., and Tian, Z., “Microstructure and tribological properties of Cr 3 C 2 / Ni 3 Al composite materials prepared by hot isostatic pressing ( HIP )”, JMADE, 115, pp. 203–212 (2017).
16.      Cios, G., Bała, P., Stępień, M., and Górecki, K., “Microstructure of cast Ni-Cr-Al-C alloy”, Arch. Metall. Mater., 60(1), pp. 145–148 (2015).
17.      Yildiz, T., Kati, N., and Gür, A. K., “The effect of sintering temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of alloys produced by using hot isostatic pressing method”, J. Alloys Compd., 737, pp. 8–13 (2018).
18.      Han, P., Lu, X., Li, W., and Zou, W., “Influence of Ni, Fe and Co on the microstructure and properties of 75% Cu–25% Sn alloy in hot pressing”, Vacuum, 154(April), pp. 359–365 (2018).
19.      Cai, W. and Bellon, P., “Effect of annealing treatment on the dry sliding wear behavior of copper”, Wear, 426427(December 2018), pp. 1187–1194 (2019).
20.      Ram Kumar, S., Gowtham, S., and Radhika, N., “Fabrication of Cu-Sn/SiC Metal Matrix Composites and Investigation of its Mechanical and Dry Sliding Wear Properties”, Mater. Today Proc., 5(5), pp. 12757–12771 (2018).
21.      Sathishkumar, G., Saravanan, S., Navaneethakrishan, G., Parkunam, N., and Yokeshwaran, R., “Microstructural and wear behaviour of heat treated Cu-11Ni-6Sn alloy”, Mater. Today Proc., 21, pp. 89–92 (2020).
22.      Radhika, N. and Sam, M., “Enhancement of tribological performance of centrifuge cast functionally graded Cu-10Sn-5Ni alloy with ceramic reinforcements”, J. Mater. Res. Technol., 8(4), pp. 3415–3423 (2019).
23.      Martínez, C., Briones, F., Aguilar, C., Araya, N., Iturriza, I., Machado, I., and Rojas, P., “Effect of hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure, hardness, and wear behavior of nickel”, Mater. Lett., 273 (2020).