An application of energy efficiency programs to multi-stage transmission network expansion and reactive power planning

Document Type : Article


1 Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran

2 Electrical Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


Energy efficiency programs as an energy source with multiple advantages (low cost, more reliable and better clean) are considered as one of the most effective solutions to meet future energy needs. In this paper, energy efficiency programs are modelled as virtual sources of power generation to investigate their impacts on expanding transmission network and reactive power planning. A multi-stage model based on AC power flow has been used to indicate the possibility of postponing the investment actions as the investment deferral in transmission expansion problems. Two groups of regulatory support schemes are considered as investor income to promote participation in energy efficiency programs, namely purchasing certified emission reductions and shared saving model. In addition, two standard case studies (Garver & 46-bus Brazilian) are evaluated to demonstrate the promising potential of the proposed model in handling the planning problems of practical power systems. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model to solve such planning problems in the presence of energy efficiency programs.


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