Expansion planning of automated sub-transmission and distribution networks integrated by distributed generations

Document Type : Article


1 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran

2 - Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran - School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology (LUT), Lappeenranta, Finland

3 Higher Education Center of Eghlid, Eghlid, Iran


This paper presents sub-transmission and distribution network expansion planning (S&DEP) including distributed generation (DG) and distribution automation (DA) considering reliability indexes. The objective function is to minimize investment, operation, maintenance and reliability costs subjected to AC power flow, system operation and generating units and DG limits, reliability, and distribution automation constraints (including the constraints of protection devices and volt/VAr control mechanism). The proposed model is a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model which is hard to solve. For this reason, a MINLP problem is transformed to mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model. The validity of the proposed method is investigated in the two synthetic test networks.



[1] Gao, Y., Hu, X., Yang, W., Liang, H. and Li, P. “Multi-Objective Bilevel Coordinated Planning of Distributed Generation and Distribution Network Frame Based on Multi-scenario Technique Considering Timing Characteristics”, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 8(4), pp. 1415-1429 (2017).
[2] Heidari, S., Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M. and Lehtonen, M. “Planning to Equip the Power Distribution Networks with Automation System”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 32(5), pp. 3451-3460 (2017).
[3] Moradi, S., Ghaffarpour, R., Ranjbar, A., Mozaffari, B. “Optimal integrated sizing and planning of hubs with midsize/large CHP units considering reliability of supply”, Energy Conversion and Management, 148, pp. 974-992 (2017).
[4] Mazhari, S. M., Monsef H. and Romero, R. "A Multi-Objective Distribution System Expansion Planning Incorporating Customer Choices on Reliability", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 31(2), pp. 1330-1340 (2016).
[5] Koutsoukis, N. C., Georgilakis P. S. and Hatziargyriou, N. D. "Multistage Coordinated Planning of Active Distribution Networks", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 33(1), pp. 32-44 (2018).
[6] Ahmadigorji, M., Amjady, N. “A new evolutionary solution method for dynamic expansion planning of DG-integrated primary distribution networks”, Energy Conversion and Management, 82, pp. 61-70 (2014).
[7] Naderi E. and Seifi H. “A Dynamic Approach for Distribution System Planning Considering Distributed Generation”, IEEE Trans Power Delivery, 27(3), pp. 1313-1322 (2012). [8] Zou, K., Prakash, A., Muttaqi, K.M. “Distribution System Planning With Incorporating DG Reactive Capability and System Uncertainties” , IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, 3(1), pp. 112-123 (2012).
[9] Bagheri, A., Monsef, H., Lesani, H. “Integrated distribution network expansion planning incorporating distributed generation considering uncertainties, reliability, and operational conditions” , Int. J. Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 73, pp. 56–70 (2015).
[10] Saboori, H., Hemmati R. and Abbasi V. “Multistage distribution network expansion planning considering the emerging energy storage systems”, Energy Conversion and Management, 105, pp. 938–945 (2015).
[11] Heidari, S., Fotuhi-Firuzabad M. and Kazemi, S. “Power distribution network expansion planning considering distribution automation” , IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 30(3), pp. 1261-1269 (2015).
[12] Munoz-Delgado, G., Contreras J. and Arroyo, J. M. “Joint expansion planning of distributed generation and distribution networks”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 30(5), pp. 2579-2590 (2015).
[13] AlKaabi, S. S., Zeineldin H. H. and Khadkikar, V. “Planning active distribution networks considering multi-DG configurations”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 29(9), pp. 785-793 (2014).
[14] Gonecalves, R. R., Franco, J. F., Rider, M. J. “Short-term expansion planning of radial electrical distribution sustems using mixed-integer liner programming”, IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 9(3), pp. 256-266 (2015).
[15] Karimi M. and Haghifam, M. R. "Risk based multi-objective dynamic expansion planning of sub-transmission network in order to have eco-reliability, environmental friendly network with higher power quality”, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 11(1), pp. 261-271 (2017).
[16] Shen, X., Shahidehpour, M., Han, Y., Zhu, S. and Zheng, J. “Expansion Planning of Active Distribution Networks With Centralized and Distributed Energy Storage Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 8(1), pp. 126-134 (2017).
[17] Xing, H., Cheng, H., Zhang Y. and Zeng, P. “Active distribution network expansion planning integrating dispersed energy storage systems”, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 10(3), pp. 638-644 (2016).
[18] Muñoz-Delgado, G., Contreras, J. and Arroyo, J. M. "Multistage Generation and Network Expansion Planning in Distribution Systems Considering Uncertainty and Reliability”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 31(5), pp. 3715-3728 (2016).
[19] Shivaie, M., Ameli, M.T., Sepasian, M.S., Weinsier, P.D., Vahidinasab, V. “A multistage framework for reliability-based distribution expansion planning considering distributed generations by a self-adaptive global-based harmony search algorithm“, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 139, pp. 68-81 (2015).
[20] EPE, Relatório EPE-DEE-RE-081/2013, “Estudo de Suprimento à Região Metropolitana de Cuiabá – Mato Grosso”, August (2013).
[21] Kermanshahi, B. and Kamel, R.M. “Optimal Size and Location of Distributed Generations for Minimizing Power Losses in a Primary Distribution Network”, Scientia Iranica, 16(2), pp. 137-144 (2009).
[22] Memarzadeh, G., Esmaeili, S. “Voltage and reactive power control in distribution network considering optimal network configuration and voltage security constraints”, Scientia Iranica, (), pp. -. (2018) doi: 10.24200/sci.2018.20565
[23] Billinton, R. and Grover, M. S. “Reliability evaluation in distribution and transmission systems”, PROC. IEE, 122(5), pp. 517-524 (1975).
[24] Garey, M.R. and Johnson, D.S. “Computers and intractability: a guide to the theory of NP completeness”, Freeman, 1979.
[25] Papadimitriou, C.H. and Steiglitz, K. “Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity”, Dover, 1998.
[26] Pirouzi, S., Aghaei, J., Vahidinasab, V., Niknam, T., and Khodaei, A. “Robust linear architecture for active/reactive power scheduling of EV integrated smart distribution networks”, Electric Power System Research, 155, pp. 8-20 (2018).
[27] Pirouzi, S., Aghaei, Niknam, T., Farahmand, H. and Korpås, M. “Proactive Operation of Electric Vehicles in Harmonic Polluted Smart Distribution Networks”, IET Generation, Transmission and distribution, 12, pp. 967-975 (2018).
[28] Pirouzi, S., Aghaei, Niknam, T., Shafie-khah, M., Vahidinasab, V. and Catalão, J.P.S. “Two alternative robust optimization models for flexible power management of electric vehicles in distribution networks”, Energy, 141, pp. 635-652 (2017).
[29] Generalized Algebraic Modeling Systems (GAMS). [Online]. Available: http://www.gams.com.