Reactive extraction of lactic acid using environmentally benign green solvents and a synergistic mixture of extractants

Document Type : Article


Research Laboratory-III, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal- 148106, Punjab, India.


An environment-friendly reactive extraction method as a novel phase separation technique was postulated to extract lactic acid (LA) from aqueous solution by means of environmentally benign green solvents along with the synergistic mixture of extractants. Reactive extraction of LA has been carried by using synergistic mixture of extractants (trioctylamine (TOA), Aliquat336, and tridodecylamine (TDDA)), organic solvents, and non-toxic and biocompatible green solvents. From the different LA reactive extraction systems investigated, the system having sunflower oil, synergist extractant (TOA and Aliquat336) and Butan-2-ol were found to be the most favourable system. The LA distribution coefficient (KD=27.75±0.22) and extraction efficiency (η=97.17±0.54%) were obtained by a system consisting of LA concentration (0.05 [M]), TOA (15%, v/v), Aliquat336 (15%, v/v), solvent ratio (2.5, v/v), phase ratio (1:1, v/v), agitation speed (100 rpm), and stirring time (120 min). The main driving force for this research work on the LA reactive extraction from aqueous solution was to develop a suitable combination of extractants, organic solvents and natural solvents which possesses high affinity towards LA and also has less toxicity towards LA producing microbes.


Main Subjects

1. Vukovic, A.D., Mladenovic, D., Ivanovic, J., Pejin, J., and Mojovic, L. "Towards sustainability of lactic acid and poly-lactic acid polymers production", Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 108, pp. 238-252 (2019).
2. Thummarungsan, N., Pattavarakorn, D., and Sirivat, A. "Softened and  flexible biodegradable poly (lactic acid) and its electromechanical properties for actuator application", J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 64, pp. 31-42 (2016).
3. Pradhan, N., dIppolitoa, G., Dipasquale, L., Esposito, G., Panico, A., Lens, P.N.L., and Fontana, A. "Simultaneous synthesis of lactic acid and hydrogen from sugars via capnophilic lactic fermentation by Thermotoga neapolitana cf capnolactica", Biomass Bioenerg., 125, pp. 17-22 (2019).
4. Yan, L., Sun, Y.Q., and Xiu, Z.L. "Sugaring-out extraction coupled with fermentation of lactic acid", Sep. Purif. Technol., 161, pp. 152-158 (2016).
5. Zhang, K. and Yang, S.T. "In situ recovery of fumaric acid by intermittent adsorption with IRA-900 ion exchange resin for enhanced fumaric acid production by Rhizopus oryzae", Biochem. Eng. J., 96, pp. 38-45 (2015).
6. Garzon, C.S.L. and Straathof, A.J.J. "Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation", Biotechnol. Adv., 32, pp. 873-904 (2014).
7. Kumar, A., Thakur, A., and Panesar, P.S. "Lactic acid extraction using environmentally benign green emulsion ionic liquid membrane", J. Clean. Prod., 181, pp. 574-583 (2018).
8. Djas, M. and Henczka, M. "Reactive extraction of carboxylic acids using organic solvents and supercritical fluids: A review", Sep. Purif. Technol., 201, pp. 106- 119 (2018).
9. Nakano, S., Ugwu, C.U., and Tokiwa, Y. "Efficient production od D-(-)-lactic acid from broken rice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii using Ca (OH)2 as a neutralizing agent", Bioresour. Technol., 104, pp. 791-794 (2012).
10. Li, X., Wang, S., Liu, Y., Jiang, L., Song, B., Li, M., Zeng, G., Tan, X., Cai, X., and Ding, Y. "Adsorption of Cu (II), Pb (II), and Cd (II) ions from acidic aqueous solutions by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acidmodified magnetic graphene oxide", J. Chem. Eng. Data, 62, pp. 407-416 (2017).
11. Perez, A.D., Barona, S.R., and Fontalvo, J. "Integration of a liquid membrane in Taylor flow regime with a fermentation by Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 for insitu lactic acid removal", Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif., 140, pp. 85-90 (2019).
12. Kumar, A., Thakur, A., and Panesar, P.S. "Statistical optimization of lactic acid extraction using green emulsion ionic liquid membrane (GEILM)", J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 6, pp. 1855-1864 (2018). 
13. Li, Q.Z., Jiang, X.L., Feng, X.J., Wang, J.M., Sun, C., Zhang, H.B., Xian, M., and Liu, H.Z. "Recovery processes of organic acids from fermentation broths in the biomass-based industry", J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 26, pp. 1-8 (2016).
14. Wasewar, K.L. "Reactive Extraction: An intensifying approach for carboxylic acid separation", Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl., 3, pp. 249-255 (2012).
15. Roque, L., Escudero, I., and Benito, J.M. "Separation of sodium lactate from span 80 and SDS surfactants by ultrafiltration", Sep. Purif. Technol., 180, pp. 90- 98 (2017).
16. Datta, D., Kumar, S., and Uslu, H. "Status of the reactive extraction as a method of separation", J. Chem., 2015, pp. 1-16 (2015).
17. Xu, S., Lan, K., Li, J., He, T., and Hu, C. "Separation of lactic acid from synthetic solutions and the mixture directly derived from corn stover by aqueous two-phase extraction", Sep. Purif. Technol., 204, pp. 281-289 (2018).
18. Athankar, K.K., Varma, M.N., Shende, D.Z., Yoo, C.K., and Wasewar, K.L. "Reactive extraction of phenylacetic acid with tri-n-butyl phosphate in benzene, hexanol, and rice bran oil at 298 K", J. Chem. Eng., 58, pp. 3240-3248 (2013).
19. Sulaiman, R.N.R. and Othman, N. "Synergistic green extraction of nickel ions from electroplating waste via mixtures of chelating and organophosphorus carrier", J. Hazard. Mater., 340, pp. 77-84 (2017).
20. Othman, N., Noah, N.F.M., Shu, L.Y., Ooi, Z.Y., Jusoh, N., Idroas, M., and Goto, M. "Easy removing of phenol from wastewater using vegetable oil-based organic solvent in emulsion liquid membrane process", Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 25, pp. 45-52 (2017).
21. Kumar, A., Thakur, A., and Panesar, P.S. "Stability analysis of environmentally benign green emulsion liquid membrane", J. Disper. Sci. Technol., 39, pp. 1510-1517 (2018).
22. Chang, S.H., Teng, T.T., Ismail, N., and Alkarkhi, A.F.M. "Selection of design parameters and optimization of operating parameters of soybean oil-based bulk liquid membrane for Cu (II) removal and recovery from aqueous solutions", J. Hazard. Mater., 190, pp. 197- 204 (2011).
23. Sulaimana, R.R.N. and Othman, N. "Synergetic facilitated transport of nickel via supported liquid membrane process by a mixture of Di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid and n-octanol: Kinetic permeation study and approach for a green process", Chem. Eng. Process. - Process Intensifi., 134, pp. 9-19 (2018).
24. Wang, K., Chang, Z., Ma, Y., Lei, C., Jin, S., Wu, Y., Mahmood, I., Hua, C., and Liu, H. "Equilibrium study on reactive extraction of propionic acid with N1923 in different diluents", Fluid Phase Equilib., 278, pp. 103- 108 (2009).
25. Sarkar, R., Ray, S., and Basu, S. "Synergism in solvent extraction and solvent extraction kinetics", J. Chem. Biol. Phys. Sci., 4, pp. 3156-3181 (2014).
26. Kumar, A. and Thakur A. "Parametric optimization of green synergistic reactive extraction of lactic acid using trioctylamine, Aliquat336, and butan-2-ol in sun flower oil by response surface methodology", Chem. Eng. Commun., 206, pp. 1072-1086 (2019).
27. Zhang, Y., Zhang, T., Lv, G., Zhang, G., Liu, Y., and Zhang, W. "Synergistic extraction of vanadium (IV) in sulfuric acid media using a mixture of D2EHPA and EHEHPA", Hydrometallurgy, 166, pp. 87-93 (2016).
28. Kumar, A., Thakur, A., and Panesar, P.S. "A comparative study on experimental and response surface optimization of lactic acid synergistic extraction using green emulsion liquid membrane", Sep. Purif. Technol., 211, pp. 54-62 (2019).
29. Kumar, A., Thakur, A., and Panesar, P.S. "A review on emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) for the treatment of various industrial effluent streams", Rev. Environ. Sci. Bio/Technol., 18, pp. 153-182 (2019).
30. Kimberley, A.C. and Taylor, C.A. "A simple colorimetric assay for muramic acid and lactic acid", Appl. Biochem. Biotech., 56, pp. 49-58 (1996).
31. Waghmare, M.D., Wasewar, K.L., Sonawane, S.S., and Shende, D.Z. "Natural nontoxic solvents for recovery of picolinic acid by reactive extraction", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 50, pp. 13526-13537 (2011).
32. Jun, Y.S., Lee, E.Z., Huh, Y.S., Hong, Y.K., Hong, W.H., and Lee, S.Y. "Kinetic study for the extraction of succinic acid with TOA in fermentation broth; effects of pH, salt and contaminated acid", Biochem. Eng. J., 36, pp. 8-13 (2007).
33. Keshav, A.,Wasewar, K.L., and Chand, S. "Extraction of propionic acid with tri-n-octylamine in different diluents", Sep. Purif. Technol., 63, pp. 179-183 (2008).
34. Keshav, A., Wasewar, K.L., and Chand, S. "Recovery of propionic acid from an aqueous stream by reactive extraction: effect of diluents", Desalination, 244, pp. 12-23 (2009).
35. Yankov, D., Molinier, J., Albet, J., Malmary, G., and Kyuchoukov, G. "Lactic acid extraction from aqueous solutions with tri-n-octylamine dissolved in decanol and dodecane", Biochem. Eng. J., 21, pp. 63- 71 (2004).
36. Chawong, K., and Rattanaphanee, P. "Butan-1-ol as an extractant for lactic acid recovery", World Academy Sci. Eng. Technol., 5, pp. 1324-1327 (2011).
37. Mekade, R.S. and Deshpande, R.S. "Reactive extraction of succinic acid using natural solvent", J. Technol Adv. Sci. Res., 1, pp. 313-317 (2015).
38. Wasewar, K.L. "Separation of lactic acid: Recent advances", Chem. Biochem. Eng., 19, pp. 159-172 (2005).
39. Swarnkar, A., Keshav, A., Das, A.K., and Soni, A.B. "Modeling of the recovery of citric acid using aliquat336 in natural diluents", Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res., 2, pp. 2347-3878 (2014).
40. Juang, R.S., Huang, R.H., and Wu, R.T. "Separation of citric and lactic acids in aqueous solutions by solvent extraction and liquid membrane processes", J. Membr. Sci., 136, pp. 89-99 (1997).
41. Rastogi, N.K., and Chanukya, B.S. "Supported liquid membrane composed of tertiary and quaternary amine for the extraction of lactic acid", Int. J. Membrane. Sci. Technol., 2, pp. 19-28 (2015).
42. Harington, T., and Hossain, M. "Extraction of lactic acid into sun flower oil and its recovery into an aqueous solution", Desalination, 218, pp. 287-296 (2008).
43. Tuyun, A.F. and Uslu, H. "Extraction equilibria of picolinic acid from aqueous solution by tridodecylamine (TDA)", Desalination, 268, pp. 134-140 (2011).