Development of Fragility Curves for Existing Residential Steel Buildings with Concentrically Braced Frames

Document Type : Article


Development of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-9313, Iran.


The objective of this study is to develop analytical fragility curves for an ensemble of 3- to 6-story existing residential steel buildings with concentrically braced frames in two directions, designed during 2010 and 2015, and located in Qazvin, Iran. The buildings are modeled three-dimensionally in the OpenSees, considering braces buckling behavior. Maximum interstory drift ratio ( ) and spectral acceleration at fundamental period of the structure with 5% viscous damping ( ) are considered as Damage index ( ) and Intensity measure ( ), respectively. Limit states are specified as discussed in FEMA 356. Ground motion record selection and uncertainties assessment is carried out based on FEMA P695 methodology. Analysis is performed using truncated incremental dynamic analysis ( ). Fragility function is defined as a log-normal cumulative distribution function ( ) and maximum likelihood method is used to estimate fragility parameters. According to the fragility curves obtained, seismic vulnerability of the structures is generally increased as the number of stories rises. Concentration of the inelasticity is also found to be mainly at the first story level. The results also confirm the fact that the record to record variability is the main source of uncertainty in structural probabilistic evaluation.




1.BHRC Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings: Standard no. 2800. 3rd ed", Building and Housing Research Center (2005).
2. Erberik, M.A. and Elnashai, A.S., Seismic Vulnerability of Flat-Slab Structures, Mid-America Earthquake Center CD Release 03-06 (2003).
3. Kumar, S.A., Rajaram, C., Mishra, S., Kumar, R.P., and Karnath, A. Rapid visual screening of di_erent housing typologies in Himachal Pradesh, India", Natural Hazards, 85(3), pp. 1851-1875 (2017).
4. Del Gaudio, C., De Martino, G., Di Ludovico, M., Manfredi, G., Prota, A., Ricci, P., and Verderame, G.M. Empirical fragility curves from damage data on RC buildings after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(4), pp. 1425- 1450 (2017). 5. Toma-Danila, D. and Arma_s, I. Insights into the possible seismic damage of residential buildings in Bucharest, Romania, at neighborhood resolution", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(3), pp. 1161- 1184 (2017). 6. Tavakoli, B. and Tavakoli, A. Estimating the vulnerability and loss functions of residential buildings", Natural Hazards, 7(2), pp. 155-171 (1993). 7. JICA, C. The study on seismic microzoning of the greater Tehran area in the Islamic Republic of Iran", Final Report to the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Tokyo, Japan (2000). 8. Mostafaei, H. and Kabeyasawa, T. Investigation and analysis of damage to buildings during the 2003 Bam earthquake", Bulletin of Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 79, pp. 107-132 (2004). 9. Bakhshi, A. and Karimi, K. Performance evaluation of masonry buildings using a probabilistic approach", Scientia Iranica, 15(3), pp. 295-307 (2008). 10. Jalalian, M. Deriving of empirical vulnerability functions for Iran", M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (2006). 11. Kazemi, H., Ghafory-Ashtiany, M., and Azarbakht, A. E_ect of epsilon-based record selection on fragility curves of typical irregular steel frames with concrete shear walls in Mashhad city", International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering, 5(1), p. 23 (2013). 12. Sadeghi, M., Ghafory-Ashtiany, M., and Pakdel-Lahiji, N. Developing seismic vulnerability curves for typical Iranian buildings", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability, 229(6), pp. 627-640 (2015). A. Bakhshi and H. Soltanieh/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2212{2228 2227 13. Kazemi, H., Ghafory-Ashtiany, M., and Azarbakht, A. Development of fragility curves by incorporating new spectral shape indicators and a weighted damage index: case study of steel braced frames in the city of Mashhad, Iran", Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 16(2), pp. 383-395 (2017). 14. Izanloo, F. and Yahyaabadi, A. Determination of structural fragility curves of various building types for seismic vulnerability assessment in the Sarpol-e Zahab City", Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 20(3), pp. 93-107 (2019). 15. MHUD, Iranian National Building Code, Part 6, Design Loads for Buildings, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Tehran, Iran (2009). 16. MHUD, Iranian National Building Code, Part 10, Steel Structure Design, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Tehran, Iran (2009). 17. TABS, Extended Three Dimensional Analysis of Building Systems, Computers and Structures, Inc (2011). 18. McKenna, F. OpenSees: a framework for earthquake engineering simulation", Computing in Science & Engineering, 13(4), pp. 58-66 (2011). 19. Uriz, P. and Mahin, S.A. Toward earthquake-resistant design of concentrically braced steel-frame structures", PEER rep no. 2008/08. Paci_c Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, Univ. of California, Berkeley (2008). 20. Soltanieh, H. Development of fragility curves for a number of existing buildings in Qazvin", M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (2016). 21. Kinali, K. and Ellingwood, B.R. Seismic fragility assessment of steel frames for consequence based engineering: A case study for Memphis, TN", Engineering Structures, 29(6), pp. 1115-1127 (2007). 22. Berm_udez, C.A., Barbat, A.H., Pujades, L.G., and Gonz_alez-Drigo, J.R. Seismic vulnerability and fragility of steel buildings", In Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (2008). 23. Kazantzi, A.K., Righiniotis, T.D., and Chryssanthopoulos, M.K. The e_ect of joint ductility on the seismic fragility of a regular moment resisting steel frame designed to EC8 provisions", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64(9), pp. 987-996 (2008). 24. Li, Q. and Ellingwood, B.R. Damage inspection and vulnerability analysis of existing buildings with steel moment-resisting frames", Engineering Structures, 30(2), pp. 338-351 (2008). 25. Ellingwood, B.R. and Kinali, K. Quantifying and communicating uncertainty in seismic risk assessment", Structural Safety, 31(2), pp. 179-187 (2009). 26. Majd, M., Hosseini, M., and MoeinAmini, A. Developing fragility curves for steel building with X-bracing by nonlinear time history analyses", In 15th World Conference Earthquake Engineering, Lisboa (2012). 27. Akbari, R., Aboutalebi, M.H., and Maheri, M.R. Seismic fragility assessment of steel X-braced and chevron-braced RC frames", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Bhrc), 16(1), pp. 13-27 (2015). 28. Kiani, A., Mansouri, B., and Moghadam, A.S. Fragility curves for typical steel frames with semirigid saddle connections", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 118, pp. 231-242 (2016). 29. Banihashemi, M.R., Mirzagoltabar, A.R., and Tavakoli, H.R. Reliability and fragility curve assessment of steel concentrically braced frames", European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 20(7), pp. 748-770 (2016). 30. Li, G., Dong, Z.Q., Li, H.N., and Yang, Y. B. Seismic collapse analysis of concentrically-braced frames by the ida method", Advanced Steel Construction, 13(3), pp. 273-292 (2017). 31. Choi, K.S., Park, J.G., and Kim, H.J. Numerical investigation on design requirements for steel ordinary braced frames", Engineering Structures, 137, pp. 296- 309 (2017). 32. D__az, S.A., Pujades, L.G., Barbat, A.H., Hidalgo- Leiva, D.A., and Vargas-Alzate, Y.F. Capacity, damage and fragility models for steel buildings: a probabilistic approach", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(3), pp. 1209-1243 (2018). 33. Fattahi, F. and Gholizadeh, S. Seismic fragility assessment of optimally designed steel moment frames", Engineering Structures, 179, pp. 37-51 (2019). 34. Sinha, R. and Shiradhonkar, S.R. Seismic damage index for classi_cation of structural damage-closing the loop", In the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (2012). 35. Bani Asadi, A. Application of damage indices in seismic analysis of concrete frames using endurance time method", M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (2012). 36. Pitilakis, K., Argyroudis, S., Kakderi, K., Argyroudis, A., Crowley, H., and Taucer, F., Systemic Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Analysis for Buildings, Lifeline Networks and Infrastructures Safety Gain, Publications O_ce of the European Union (2013). 37. Mackie, K. and Stojadinovi_c, B., Seismic Demands for Performance-Based Design of Bridges, Paci_c Earthquake Engineering Research Center (2003). 38. Fathieh, A. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of modular steel buildings in two and three dimensions", Doctoral dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto (2013). 39. FEMA, P695, Quanti_cation of Building Seismic Performance Factors, prepared by the Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, California for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (2009). 2228 A. Bakhshi and H. Soltanieh/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2212{2228 40. ground motion db.html 41. Lee, T.H. and Mosalam, K.M. Seismic demand sensitivity of reinforced concrete shear-wall building using FOSM method", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 34(14), pp. 1719-1736 (2005). 42. Koutromanos, I. and Shing, P.S. Example application of the FEMA P695 (ATC-63) methodology for the collapse performance evaluation of reinforced masonry shear wall structures", In Proc., 9th US National and 10th Canadian Conf. on Earthquake Engineering (2010). 43. Donovan, L.T. and Memari, A.M. Determination of seismic performance factors for structural insulated panel shear walls based on FEMA P695 methodology", PHRC Research Series Rep, 110 (2011). 44. Pragalath, D.H. and Sarkar, R.D.P. Reliability evaluation of RC frame by two major fragility analysis methods", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (BHRC), 16(1), pp. 47-66 (2015). 45. Siyam, M. Seismic performance assessment of ductile reinforced concrete block structural walls", Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, McMaster University, Ontario (2016). 46. Hsiao, P.C., Lehman, D.E., and Roeder, C.W. A model to simulate special concentrically braced frames beyond brace fracture", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 42(2), pp. 183-200 (2013). 47. Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M., and Fenves, G., Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSEES) User Command-Language Manual, Paci _c Earthquake Engineering Research Center., University of California, Berkeley (2006). 48. Vamvatsikos, D. Seismic performance, capacity and reliability of structures as seen through incremental dynamic analysis", Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Palo-Alto, CA (2002). 49. Baker, J.W. E_cient analytical fragility function _tting using dynamic structural analysis", Earthquake Spectra, 31(1), pp. 579-599 (2015). 50. FEMA, Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, FEMA-356, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (2000). 51. MATLAB, The Language of Technical Programming, the Mathworks Inc (2010). 52. Vamvatsikos, D. and Cornell, C.A. Direct estimation of seismic demand and capacity of multidegree-offreedom systems through incremental dynamic analysis of single degree of freedom approximation", Journal of Structural Engineering, 131(4), pp. 589-599 (2005).