Experimental evaluation of solar integrated water heater

Document Type : Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, A.B. Road, Guna-473226, Madhya Pradesh, India.

2 Department of Education, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 Uttar Pradesh, India.


This paper presents an experimental evaluation of portable modified conventional buckets of 10 l capacity. Out of ten modified portable storage, best three cases (viz. Non-insulated open plastic bucket (OPB), Non insulated plastic bucket top surface covered with a transparent cover (CPB), and Insulated plastic bucket closed with a transparent cover (ICPB)) are discussed. Maximum temperature rise after two hour time duration OPB, CPB, and ICPB are 29.82%, 47.36%, and 21.49% respectively as compared with the initial value the temperatures (22.8 ℃). At 14:45 hour CPB temperature reaches 35.6 °C which is 17.88 and 23.61% higher values as compared to the OPB and ICPB units. Net saving due to utilization solar energy in CPB for a range of 35-50°C is net saving increased by 12.34%, 25.76%, 40.73%, 57.93%, 76.45%, and 97.18% from 2017 to 2022 as compared with the saving in 2016.


Main Subjects

1. Raisul Islam, M., Sumathy, K., and Ullah Khan, S. "Solar water heating systems and their market trends", Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 17, pp. 1-25 (2013).
2. Natarajan, E. and Sathish, R. "Role of nanofluids in solar water heater", International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 8(170), pp. 1876- 1882 (2009).
3. Varghese, J., Samsher, and Manjunath, K. "A parametric study of a concentrating integral storage solar water heater for domestic uses", Applied Thermal Engineering, 111, pp. 734-744 (2017).
4. Aguilar, F.J., Aledo, S., and Quiles, P.V. "Experimental study of the solar photovoltaic contribution for the domestic hot water production with heat pumps in dwellings", Applied Thermal Engineering, 101, pp. 379-389 (2016).
5. Sodha, M.S., Raman, R., Kumar, A., and Goyal, A.K."Energy conservation in electrical water heating in buckets", International Journal of Energy & Research, 12, pp. 125-136 (1988).
6. Farahani, S.D., Najafi, A.R., Kowsary, F., and Ashjaee, M. "Experimental estimation heat  flux and heat transfer coefficient by using inverse methods", Scientia Iranica, 23, pp. 1777-1786 (2016).
7. Zhang, T., Tan, Y., Zhang, J., and Yu, K. "Design and simulation of a heating system for water purification structures in cold rural areas", Scientia Iranica, 22, pp. 2229-2239 (2015).
8. Jahangiri Mamouri, S. and Benard, A. "New design approach and implementation of solar water heaters: A case study in Michigan", Solar Energy, 162, pp. 165-177 (2018).
9. Moore, A.D., Urmee, T., Bahri, P.A., Rezvani, S., and Baverstock, G.F. "Life cycle assessment of domestic hot water systems in Australia", Renewable Energy, 103, pp. 187-196 (2017).
10. Sobhansarbandi, S., Martinez, P.M., Papadimitratos,A.,  Zakhidov, A., and Hassanipour, F. "Evacuated tube solar collector with multifunctional absorber layers", Solar Energy, 146, pp. 342-350 (2017).
11. Ferrer, P.A.F. "Average economic performance of solar water heaters for low density dwellings across South Africa", Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 76, pp. 507-515 (2017).
12. Tiwari, G.N. , Solar Energy: Fundamentals, Design, Modelling and Applications, Alpha Science International Ltd. (2002).
13. McAdams, W.C., Heat Transmission, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, new York (1954).
14. Garg, H.P. "Technoeconomics of solar forced flow hybrid hot water system", in: Solar Water Heating Systems, D. Redel Publishing Company, Holland, pp. 385-402 (1985).