Seismic evaluation of special steel moment frames subjected to near-field earthquakes with forward directivity by considering soil-structure interaction effects

Document Type : Article


1 TAAT Investment Group, Tehran, 18717-13553, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Birjand University of Technology, Birjand, P.O. Box 97175-569, Iran.

4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Incheon National University, 12-1 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 22012, South Korea.; Incheon Disaster Prevention Research Center, Incheon National University, 12-1 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840, South Korea.


While the bottom soil of the foundation is supposed to be rigid and the flexibility effect is ignored, the seismic response of the structure is affected by dynamic properties of the structure, and the soil flexibility does not have any effect on the response of the structure. Hence, considering the results obtained by analyses based on the fixed base buildings can lead to the unsafe design of the structure. On the other hand, the proximity of the site to the earthquake production resource causes the most earthquake energy to be reached to the structure as a long-period pulse. Therefore, near-field earthquakes produce many seismic needs so that force the structure to dissipate this input energy with relatively large displacements. Accordingly, the primary objective of the present paper is the determination of the seismic response of the 3, 5 and 8-story steel buildings with special moment frame system and by considering the soil-structure interaction and panel zone modeling as well. The selected records of the near and far-field earthquakes in nonlinear time history analysis have been used, and the response of the structure was compared in both states.


Main Subjects

[1] Shahbazi, S., Mansouri, I., Hu, J.W. and Karami, A. “Effect of soil classification on seismic behavior of SMFs considering soil-structure interaction and near-field earthquakes”, Shock and Vibration, 2018, pp. 1-17 (2018).
[2] Farzampour, A. and Kamali Asl, A. "On seismic hazard analysis of the two vulnerable regions in Iran: deterministic and probabilistic approaches." Proc., 2014 NZSEE Conference.
[3] Farzampour, A. and Kamali-Asl, A. “Seismic hazard assessment for two cities in Eastern Iran”, Earthquake and Structures, 8(3), pp. 681-697 (2015).
[4] Eser, M., Aydemir, C. and Ekiz, I. "Effects of soil structure interaction on strength reduction factors." Proc., Procedia Engineering, 1696-1704.
[5] Shakib, H. and Atefatdoost, G.R. "Effect of soil-structure interaction on torsional response of asymmetric wall type systems." Proc., Procedia Engineering, 1729-1736.
[6] Rodriguez, M.E. and Montes, R. “Seismic response and damage analysis of buildings supported on flexible soils”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 29(5), pp. 647-665 (2000).
[7] Behnamfar, F., Mirhosseini, S.M. and Alibabaei, H. “Seismic behavior of structures considering uplift and soil–structure interaction”, Advances in Structural Engineering, 20(11), pp. 1712-1726 (2017).
[8] Shrestha, B., Hao, H. and Bi, K. “Seismic response analysis of multiple-frame bridges with unseating restrainers considering ground motion spatial variation and SSI”, Advances in Structural Engineering, 18(6), pp. 873-891 (2015).
[9] Zheng, Y., Chen, B. and Chen, W. “Elasto-plastic seismic response of RC continuous bridge with foundation-pier dynamic interaction”, Advances in Structural Engineering, 18(6), pp. 817-836 (2015).
[10] Fatahi, B. and Tabatabaiefar, S.H.R. “Effects of soil plasticity on seismic performance of mid-rise building frames resting on soft soils”, Advances in Structural Engineering, 17(10), pp. 1387-1402 (2014).
[11] Hosseinzadeh, N. "Shake table study of Soil- Foundation-Structure Interaction (SFSI) effects in rocking and horizontal motions of the building structures." Proc., 9th US National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2010, Including Papers from the 4th International Tsunami Symposium, 5765-5772.
[12] Nateghi-A, F. and Rezaei-Tabrizi, A. “Nonlinear dynamic response of tall buildings considering structure-soil-structure effects”, Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 22(14), pp. 1075-1082 (2013).
[13] Liao, H.J., Liu, J., Zhao, V.G. and Xiao, Z.H. “Analysis of soil-structure interaction with finite element method”, Key Engineering Materials, 340-341, pp. 1279-1284 (2007).
[14] Sáez, E., Lopez-Caballero, F. and Modaressi-Farahmand-Razavi, A. “Effect of the inelastic dynamic soil-structure interaction on the seismic vulnerability assessment”, Structural Safety, 33(1), pp. 51-63 (2011).
[15] El Ganainy, H. and El Naggar, M.H. “Seismic performance of three-dimensional frame structures with underground stories”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29(9), pp. 1249-1261 (2009).
[16] Tabatabaiefar, H.R. and Massumi, A. “A simplified method to determine seismic responses of reinforced concrete moment resisting building frames under influence of soil-structure interaction”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 30(11), pp. 1259-1267 (2010).
[17] Gharehbaghi, S., Salajegheh, E. and Khatibinia, M. "Evaluation of seismic energy demand of reinforced concrete moment reistant frames considering soil-structure interaction effects." Proc., Civil-Comp Proceedings.
[18] Khatibinia, M., Javad Fadaee, M., Salajegheh, J. and Salajegheh, E. “Seismic reliability assessment of RC structures including soil-structure interaction using wavelet weighted least squares support vector machine”, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 110, pp. 22-33 (2013).
[19] Khatibinia, M., Salajegheh, E., Salajegheh, J. and Fadaee, M.J. “Reliability-based design optimization of reinforced concrete structures including soil-structure interaction using a discrete gravitational search algorithm and a proposed metamodel”, Engineering Optimization, 45(10), pp. 1147-1165 (2013).
[20] Masaeli, H., Khoshnoudian, F. and Ziaei, R. “Rocking soil-structure systems subjected to near-fault pulses”, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 19(3), pp. 461-479 (2015).
[21] Mitropoulou, C.C., Kostopanagiotis, C., Kopanos, M., Ioakim, D. and Lagaros, N.D. “Influence of soil-structure interaction on fragility assessment of building structures”, Structures, 6, pp. 85-98 (2016).
[22] Farzampour, A. and Kamali Asl, A. "On seismic hazard analysis of the two vulnerable regions in Iran: deterministic and probabilistic approaches." Proc., 2014 NZSEE Conference, New Zealand.
[23] Kalkan, E. and Kunnath, S.K. “Effects of fling step and forward directivity on seismic response of buildings”, Earthquake Spectra, 22(2), pp. 367-390 (2006).
[24] Liu, H., Hung, C. and Cao, J. “Relationship between Arias intensity and the responses of reinforced soil retaining walls subjected to near-field ground motions”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 111, pp. 160-168 (2018).
[25] Sayyadpour, H., Behnamfar, F. and El Naggar, M.H. “The near-field method: a modified equivalent linear method for dynamic soil–structure interaction analysis. Part II: verification and example application”, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(8), pp. 2385-2404 (2016).
[26] Abell, J.A., Orbović, N., McCallen, D.B. and Jeremic, B. “Earthquake soil-structure interaction of nuclear power plants, differences in response to 3-D, 3 × 1-D, and 1-D excitations”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 47(6), pp. 1478-1495 (2018).
[27] Lee, J.H. “Nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis in poroelastic soil using mid-point integrated finite elements and perfectly matched discrete layers”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 108, pp. 160-176 (2018).
[28] Emami, A.R. and Halabian, A.M. “Damage Index Distributions in RC Dual Lateral Load-Resistant Multi-Story Buildings Considering SSI Effects under Bidirectional Earthquakes”, Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, 12(1),  (2018).
[29] Khoshnoudian, F., Ziaei, R., Ayyobi, P. and Paytam, F. “Effects of nonlinear soil–structure interaction on the seismic response of structure-TMD systems subjected to near-field earthquakes”, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(1), pp. 199-226 (2017).
[30] Bybordiani, M. and Arıcı, Y. “Effectiveness of motion scaling procedures for the seismic assessment of concrete gravity dams for near field motions”, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, pp. 1-16 (2018).
[31] Cheng, X., Jing, W., Chen, J. and Zhang, X. “Pounding Dynamic Responses of Sliding Base-Isolated Rectangular Liquid-Storage Structure considering Soil-Structure Interactions”, Shock and Vibration, 2017,  (2017).
[32] Behnamfar, F. and Sayyadpour, H. “The near-field method: a modified equivalent linear method for dynamic soil–structure interaction analysis. Part I: Theory and methodology”, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(8), pp. 2361-2384 (2016).
[33] Johari, A., Javadi, A.A. and Najafi, H. “A genetic-based model to predict maximum lateral displacement of retaining wall in granular soil”, Scientia Iranica, 23(1), pp. 54-65 (2016).
[34] Azizkandi, A.S., Baziar, M.H., Modarresi, M., Salehzadeh, H. and Rasouli, H. “Centrifuge modeling of pile-soil-pile interaction considering relative density and toe condition”, Scientia Iranica, 21(4), pp. 1330-1339 (2014).
[35] Tajammolian, H., Khoshnoudian, F. and Bokaeian, V. “Seismic responses of asymmetric steel structures isolated with the TCFP subjected to mathematical near-fault pulse models”, Smart Structures and Systems, 18(5), pp. 931-953 (2016).
[36] Yin, S., Li, Y., Sandberg, M. and Lam, K. “The effect of building spacing on near-field temporal evolution of triple building plumes”, Building and Environment, 122, pp. 35-49 (2017).
[37] Standard-2800. "Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings, 4th Ed.", Building and Housing Research Center, Tehran, Iran (in Persian),  (2014).
[38] "ANSI/AISC360-10: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings." American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago-Illinois, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago-Illinois,  (2010).
[39] Jaya, K.P. and Meher Prasad, A. “Embedded foundation in layered soil under dynamic excitations”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 22(6), pp. 485-498 (2002).
[40] Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M.H. and Fenves, G.L. "OpenSees." Command Manual,,  (2014).
[41] Zhang, Y., Conte, J.P., Yang, Z., Elgamal, A., Bielak, J. and Acero, G. “Two-dimensional nonlinear earthquake response analysis of a bridge-foundation-ground system”, Earthquake Spectra, 24(2), pp. 343-386 (2008).
[42] Lysmer, J. and Kuhlemeyer, R.L. “Finite dynamic model for infinite media”, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, 95(4 EM), pp. 859-877 (1969).
[43] Ibarra, L.F., Medina, R.A. and Krawinkler, H. “Hysteretic models that incorporate strength and stiffness deterioration”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 34(12), pp. 1489-1511 (2005).
[44] Lignos, D.G. and Krawinkler, H. “Deterioration modeling of steel components in support of collapse prediction of steel moment frames under earthquake loading”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 137(11), pp. 1291-1302 (2011).
[45] Gupta, A. and Krawinkler, H. “Seismic demands for performance evaluation of steel moment resisting frame structures”, Report no. 132. John A Blume earthquake engineering center Stanford University,  (1999).
[46] Clough, R.W. and Penzien, J. (1975). Dynamics of structures, McGraw-Hill Companies, New York.
[47] Decanini, L., Mollaioli, F. and Saragoni, R. "Energy and displacement demands imposed by near-source ground motions." Proc., Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering.
[48] Singh, J.P. “Earthquake ground motions: Implications for designing structures and reconciling structural damage”, Earthquake Spectra, 1(2), pp. 239-270 (1985).
[49] Alavi, B. and Krawinkler, H. “Behavior of moment-resisting frame structures subjected to near-fault ground motions”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 33(6), pp. 687-706 (2004).
[50] Chioccarelli, E. (2010). "Design earthquakes for PBEE in far-field and near-source conditions." Ph.D. thesis, University of Naples Federico II.
[51] Naeim, F. (2001). The Seismic Design Handbook, Springer; 2nd edition.