Fabrication of bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) thin Films: Effect of annealing temperature on their structural and optical properties

Document Type : Article


1 Department of Applied Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan.; Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Computational Materials Science Research Team, RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (AICS), Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan.

3 Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


Bismuth Titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) ceramics, so-called BiT, have many modern applications in microelectronics, sensors, and capacitors. In this study, the related solutions for fabricating BiT thin films were prepared and then coated on glass substrates by using the sol-gel technique and the spin coating instrument. The Xray diffraction patterns of our samples indicate that the crystalline phases of BiT are orthorhombic. Based on the transmission-spectra analysis, the samples are transparent in the visible spectrum, and their optical energy gaps are found to be 3.36 eV and 3.41 eV for the BiT thin films annealed at 600◦C and 650◦C, respectively. Other physical quantities such as refractive index, thickness, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant were estimated by swanepol’s method. The results show that as the annealing temperature rises the real part of the dielectric constant becomes larger indicating our samples are good dielectric materials


Main Subjects

1. Chen, J., Zhang, Y., Deng, C., and Dai, X. "Crystallization kinetics and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate based glass-ceramics", Mater. Chem. Phys., 121(1-2), pp. 109-113 (2010).
2. Zhang, W.F., Zhang, M.S., and Yin, Z. "Large thirdorder optical nonlinearity in SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 thin films by pulsed laser deposition", Applied Physics Letters, 75(7), pp. 902-904 (1999).
3. Sahoo, K.K., Rajput, S.S., Gupta, R., et al. "Nd and Ru co-doped bismuth titanate polycrystalline thin films with improved ferroelectric properties", Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 51(5), 055301 (2018).
4. Rodel, J., Webber, K.G., Dittmer, R., et al. "Transferring lead-free piezoelectric ceramics into application", Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 35(6), pp. 1659-1681 (2015).
5. Bedoya-Hincapie, C.M., Restrepo-Parra, E., Olaya- Florez, J.J., et al. "Ferroelectric behavior of bismuth titanate thin films grown via magnetron sputtering", Ceramics International, 40(8), pp. 11831-11836 (2014).
6. Aurivillius, B., "Mixed bismuth oxides with layer lattices", Ark. Kemi, 1 p. 499 (1949).
7. Yao, W.F., Wang, H., Xu, X.H., et al. "Photocatalytic property of bismuth titanate Bi12TiO20 crystals", Applied Catalysis A: General, 243(1), pp. 185-190 (2003).
8. Wang, T., Deng, H., Zhou, W., et al. "Enhanced ferromagnetism in Ni doped aurivillius compound Bi6Fe2Ti3O18 thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition", Materials Letters, 220, pp. 261-265 (2018).
9. Subbarao, E.C. "Ferroelectricity in Bi4Ti3O12 and its solid solutions", Physical Review, 122(3), p. 804 (1961).
10. Rae, A.D., Thompson, J.G., Withers, R.L., et al. "Structure refinement of commensurately modulated bismuth titanate, Bi4Ti3O12", Acta Crystallographica Section B, 46(4), pp. 474-487 (1990).
11. Swartz, S., Schulze, W.A., Biggers, J.V., et al.  Fabrication and electrical properties of grain oriented Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics", Ferroelectrics, 38(1), pp. 765-768 (1981).
12. Searfass, C.T., Pheil, C., Sinding, K., et al. "Bismuth titanate fabricated by spray-on deposition and microwave sintering for high-temperature ultrasonic transducers", IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 63(1), pp. 139-146 (2016).
13. Reaney, I.M., Taylor, D.V., Brooks, K.G., et al. "Ferroelectric PZT thin films by sol-gel deposition", Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 13(1-3), pp. 813-820 (1998).
14. Khan, A., Abas, Z., Kim, H.S., et al. "Piezoelectric thin films: an integrated review of transducers and energy harvesting", Smart Materials and Structures, 25(5), 053002 (2016).
15. Abdi, M.H., Ibrahim, N.B., Baqiah, H., et al. "Structural electrical and magnetic characterization of nickeldoped tin oxide film by a sol-gel method", Scientia Iranica. Transaction F, Nanotechnology, 21(6), p. 2459 (2014).
16. Kassim, A., Ho, S.M., Abdullah, A.H., et al. "XRD, AFM and UV-Vis optical studies of PbSe thin films produced by chemical bath deposition method", Scientia Iranica, Transactions, C, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, 17(2), p. 139 (2010).
17. Dias, J.A., Oliveira, J.A., Renda, C.G., et al. "Production of nanometric Bi4Ti3O12 powders: From synthesis to optical and dielectric properties", Materials Research, 21(5) (2018).
18. Al-Arjan, W.S., Algaradah, M.M.F., Brewer, J., et al. "Sol-gel preparation of well-adhered films and long range ordered inverse opal films of BaTiO3 and Bi2Ti2O7", Materials Research Bulletin, 74, pp. 234- 240 (2016).
19. Sui, H.T., Yang, D.M., Jiang, H., et al. "Preparation and electrical properties of Sm-doped Bi2Ti2O7 thin films prepared on Pt (111) substrates", Ceramics International, 39(2), pp. 1125-1128 (2013).
20. Patterson, A.L. "The Scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination", Physical Review, 56(10), p. 978 (1939).
21. Swanepoel, R. "Determination of surface roughness and optical constants of inhomogeneous amorphous silicon films", Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, 17(10), p. 896 (1984).
22. Molla, A.R., Tarafder, A., Mukherjee, S., et al. Transparent Nd 3+-doped bismuth titanate glass-ceramic nanocomposites: Fabrication and properties", Optical Materials Express, 4(4), pp. 843-863 (2014).
23. Andrews, J., Reddy Emani, S., Raju, K.C.J., et al. "Optical properties of sodium bismuth titanate thin films", Ferroelectrics, 518(1), pp. 184-190 (2017).
24. Jia, C., Chen, Y., Zhang, W.F., et al. "Optical properties of aluminum-, gallium-, and indium-doped Bi4Ti3O12 thin films", Journal of Applied Physics, 105(11), pp. 113108 (2009).
25. Chia, Wei-Kuo, Ying-Chung Chen, and Cheng-Fu Yang. "Electrical and optical characteristics of Bi4Ti3O12 thin film on indium-tin-oxide/glass", Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 45(6R) p. 5087 (2006).
26. Jia, Caihong, Yonghai Chen, Linghong, et al. "Effect of incorporating nonlanthanoidal indium on optical properties of ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12 thin films", Applied Surface Science, 253(24), pp. 9506-9512 (2007).
27. Cao, Ziping, AiLi Ding, Xiyun He, et al. "Optical properties of BNT thin films grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (1 0 0) substrates by a CSD processing", Journal of Crystal Growth, 270(1-2), pp. 168-173 (2004).
28. Ranjbar, S., Tsunoda, M., Oogane, M., et al. "Composition dependence of exchange anisotropy in PtxMn1-x/Co70Fe30 films", Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (2019).