Document Type : Research Note

**Authors**

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, 835215, India.

**Abstract**

Given the importance of blade design in effective performance of the mixed flow pump, the present work demonstrates the designing of the mixed flow pump impeller blade using almost unexplored Mean stream line theory. The Mean stream line theory, though been used sparingly but has found to give comparable results to that of other templates of design. The design process has been carried out in AUTOCAD 2013 and Solid Works Premium 2014 software. The analysis for equivalent stress, equivalent elastic strain, Total deformation and the directional deformation have been carried out in ANSYS 2014 for different construction material of the blade i.e., stainless steel, titanium alloy, bronze, and copper alloy. Total deformation was found to be maximum for impeller blade made from titanium alloy whereas the equivalent stress and strain was least for titanium alloyed impeller blade. Further, a comparison analysis has been carried out for the equivalent stresses in blade designed using mean stream line theory and free vortex theory. It was observed that the equivalent stress in impeller blade designed using free vortex theory was lesser than that designed using mean stream line theory.

**Keywords**

- Mixed flow pump impeller blade
- AUTOCAD
- Solid Works Premium
- ANSYS
- Mean stream line theory
- free vortex theory

**Main Subjects**

References:

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2. Myles, D.J. "A design method for mixed flow fans and pumps", Report No. 117, National Engineering (1965).

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5. Gahlot, V.K. and Nyiri, A., Impeller Pumps. Theory and Design, M.A.C.T, Bhopal (1993).

6. Varchola, M. and Hlbocan, P. "Geometry design of a mixed flow pump using experimental results of an internal impeller flow", Procedia Engineering, 39, pp.168-174 (2012).

7. Zangeneh, M., Goto, A., and Takemura, T. "Suppressionof secondary flows in a mixed flow pump impeller by application of three-dimensional inverse design method: Part 1 - design and numerical validation", ASME Trans. J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 536-543 (1996).

8. Xu, J.Z. and Gu, C.W. "A numerical procedure of three-dimensional design problem in turbo machinery", ASME Trans. J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 548-582(1992).

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10. Peng, G., Cao, S., Ishizuka, M., and Hayama, S."Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part I - an improved Q3D inverse method", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 39, pp. 517-531 (2002).

11. Anagnostopoulos, J.S. "A fast numerical method for flow analysis and blade design in centrifugal pump impellers", Comput Fluids, 38, pp. 284-289 (2009).

12. Li, J., Zeng, Y., Liu, X., and Wang, H. "Optimum design on impeller blade of mixed- flow pump based on CFD", Procedia Eng., 31, pp. 187-195 (2012).

13. Jafarzadeh, B., Hajari, A., Alishahi, M.M., and Akbari, M.H. "The flow simulation of a low-specific-speed high-speed centrifugal pump", Appl. Math Model, 35, pp. 242-249 (2011).

14. Chaudhari, S.C., Yadav, C.O., and Damor, A.B. "A comparative study of mix flow pump impeller CFD analysis and experimental data of submersible pump", International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology (IJRET), 1(3), pp. 57-64 (2013).

15. Desai, S.M. and Naik, B.R. "Optimum design on impeller of mixed flow pump using CFD simulation", International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology, 4(8), pp. 535-537 (2015).

16. Mingxiong, O., Weidong, S., Weidong, J., and Qiang, F. "Numerical simulation and experimental validation on hydrodynamic radial force of mixed- ow pump impeller", Trans Chinese Soc. Agric. Eng., 31, pp. 71- 76 (2015).

17. Sff:akar, G. and Sabuncu, M. "Dynamic stability analysis of pretwisted aerofoil cross-section blade packets under rotating conditions", Int. J. Mech. Sci., 50, pp. 1-13 (2008).

18. Li, N., Zhou, Q., Chen, X., Xu, T., Hui, S., and Zhang, D. "Liquid drop impact on solid surface with application to water drop erosion on turbine blades, Part I: Nonlinear wave model and solution of onedimensional impact", Int. J. Mech. Sci., 50, pp. 1526- 1542 (2008).

19. Kaneko, S. and Hayashi, I. "Pressure pulsations in piping system excited by a centrifugal turbomachinery taking the damping characterstics into consideration", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 45, pp. 216-234 (2014).

20. Kikuyama, K., Hasegawa, H., and Maeda, T. "Unsteady pressure change in centrifugal pump impeller passages due to inlet swirl", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 6(3), pp. 337-351 (1992).

21. Shou-qi, P.Y., Jian-ping, Y., and Wen-jie, W. "The influence of the flow rate on periodic flow unsteadiness behaviors in a sewage centrifugal pump", Journal of Hydrodynamics, 25(5), pp. 702-709 (2013).

22. Pei, H., Dohmen, H.J., Yuan, S.Q., and Benra, F.K. "Investigation of unsteady flow-induced impeller oscillations of a single-blade pump under off-design conditions", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 35, pp.89-104 (2012).

23. Langthjem, M.A. and Olhoff, N. "A numerical study of flow-induced noise in a two-dimensional centrifugal pump. Part I: Hydroacoustics", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 19(3), pp. 349-368 (2004).

24. Langthjem, M.A. and Olhoff, N. "A numerical study of flow-induced noise in a two-dimensional centrifugal pump, Part II: Hydroacoustics", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 19(3), pp. 369-386 (2004).

25. Rzentkowski, G. and Zbroja, S. "Experimental characterization of centrifugal pumps as an acoustic source at the blade-passing frequency", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 14(4), pp. 529-558 (2000).

26. Ramamurti, V. and Balasubramanian, P. "Steady state stress analysis of centrifugal fan impellers", Computers & Structures, 25(1), pp. 129-135 (1987).

27. Jonker, J.B. and Essen, V.G.T. "A finite element perturbation method for computing fluid induced forces on a centrifugal impeller, rotating and whirling in a volute casing", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 40, pp. 269-294 (1997).

28. Samir, L. and Nermina, Z. "Mode shapes of centrifugal pump impeller", Trends in the Development of Machinery and Associated Technology, B&H, pp. 18-22 (2002).

29. Bhope, D.V. and Padole, P.M. "Experimental and theoretical analysis of stresses, noise and flow in centrifugal fan impeller", Mechanism and Machine Theory, 39(12), pp. 1257-1271 (2004).

30. Arewar, A.P. and Bhope, D.V. "Stress analysis of axial ow fan impeller", International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3, pp. 2086-2090 (2013).

31. Das, A., Roy. A.K., and Kumar, K. "Design and stress analysis of a mixed flow pump impeller", International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Applications, 1(5), pp. 1-7 (2013).

32. Kan, K., Zheng, Y., Fu, S., Liu, H., Yang, C., and Zhang, X. "Dynamic stress of impeller blade of shaft extension tubular pump device based on bidirectional fluid-structure interaction", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31(4), pp. 1561-1568 (2017).

33. Kumar, A., Jain, K.K., Dave, R.K., and Choudhary, A. "CFD analysis of centrifugal pump impeller having different exit blade width, exit diameter and trailing edge blade angle to enhance performance", International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 4(5), pp. 1231-1239 (2017).

34. Kocaaslan, O., Ozgoren, M., Babayigit, O., and Aksoy, M.H. "Numerical investigation of the effect of number of blades on centrifugal pump performance", In AIP Conference Proceedings, 1863(1), pp. 1-4 (2017).

35. Srivastava, S., Roy, A.K., and Kumar, K. "Design of a mixed flow pump impeller blade and its validation using stress analysis", Procedia Mater Sci., 6, pp. 417- 424 (2014).

36. Horlock, J.H., Axial Flow Compressor - Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Butterworth Scientific Publications, London (1958).

37. Zindani, D., Roy, A.K., and Kumar, K. "Design of impeller blade of mixed flow pump: A comparative analysis", In Design and Optimization of Engineering Products, K. Kumar, and J.P. Davim, Eds., pp. 37-66, IGI Global, USA (2018).

38. Zindani, D., Roy, A.K., and Kumar, K. "Comparison of stresses in blade of a mixed flow pump impeller designed using mean stream line method and free vortex method", Materials Today: Proceedings, 4(8),pp. 9333-9340 (2017).

2. Myles, D.J. "A design method for mixed flow fans and pumps", Report No. 117, National Engineering (1965).

3. Stepanoff, A.J., Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York (1957).

4. Neumann, B., The Interaction Between Geometry and Performance of a Centrifugal Pump, Mechanical Engineering Publications, London (1991).

5. Gahlot, V.K. and Nyiri, A., Impeller Pumps. Theory and Design, M.A.C.T, Bhopal (1993).

6. Varchola, M. and Hlbocan, P. "Geometry design of a mixed flow pump using experimental results of an internal impeller flow", Procedia Engineering, 39, pp.168-174 (2012).

7. Zangeneh, M., Goto, A., and Takemura, T. "Suppressionof secondary flows in a mixed flow pump impeller by application of three-dimensional inverse design method: Part 1 - design and numerical validation", ASME Trans. J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 536-543 (1996).

8. Xu, J.Z. and Gu, C.W. "A numerical procedure of three-dimensional design problem in turbo machinery", ASME Trans. J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 548-582(1992).

9. Borges, J.E. "A three-dimensional inverse method for turbo machinery: Part-1 Theory", ASME Trans. J.Turbo, 112, pp. 346-354 (1990).

10. Peng, G., Cao, S., Ishizuka, M., and Hayama, S."Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part I - an improved Q3D inverse method", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 39, pp. 517-531 (2002).

11. Anagnostopoulos, J.S. "A fast numerical method for flow analysis and blade design in centrifugal pump impellers", Comput Fluids, 38, pp. 284-289 (2009).

12. Li, J., Zeng, Y., Liu, X., and Wang, H. "Optimum design on impeller blade of mixed- flow pump based on CFD", Procedia Eng., 31, pp. 187-195 (2012).

13. Jafarzadeh, B., Hajari, A., Alishahi, M.M., and Akbari, M.H. "The flow simulation of a low-specific-speed high-speed centrifugal pump", Appl. Math Model, 35, pp. 242-249 (2011).

14. Chaudhari, S.C., Yadav, C.O., and Damor, A.B. "A comparative study of mix flow pump impeller CFD analysis and experimental data of submersible pump", International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology (IJRET), 1(3), pp. 57-64 (2013).

15. Desai, S.M. and Naik, B.R. "Optimum design on impeller of mixed flow pump using CFD simulation", International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology, 4(8), pp. 535-537 (2015).

16. Mingxiong, O., Weidong, S., Weidong, J., and Qiang, F. "Numerical simulation and experimental validation on hydrodynamic radial force of mixed- ow pump impeller", Trans Chinese Soc. Agric. Eng., 31, pp. 71- 76 (2015).

17. Sff:akar, G. and Sabuncu, M. "Dynamic stability analysis of pretwisted aerofoil cross-section blade packets under rotating conditions", Int. J. Mech. Sci., 50, pp. 1-13 (2008).

18. Li, N., Zhou, Q., Chen, X., Xu, T., Hui, S., and Zhang, D. "Liquid drop impact on solid surface with application to water drop erosion on turbine blades, Part I: Nonlinear wave model and solution of onedimensional impact", Int. J. Mech. Sci., 50, pp. 1526- 1542 (2008).

19. Kaneko, S. and Hayashi, I. "Pressure pulsations in piping system excited by a centrifugal turbomachinery taking the damping characterstics into consideration", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 45, pp. 216-234 (2014).

20. Kikuyama, K., Hasegawa, H., and Maeda, T. "Unsteady pressure change in centrifugal pump impeller passages due to inlet swirl", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 6(3), pp. 337-351 (1992).

21. Shou-qi, P.Y., Jian-ping, Y., and Wen-jie, W. "The influence of the flow rate on periodic flow unsteadiness behaviors in a sewage centrifugal pump", Journal of Hydrodynamics, 25(5), pp. 702-709 (2013).

22. Pei, H., Dohmen, H.J., Yuan, S.Q., and Benra, F.K. "Investigation of unsteady flow-induced impeller oscillations of a single-blade pump under off-design conditions", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 35, pp.89-104 (2012).

23. Langthjem, M.A. and Olhoff, N. "A numerical study of flow-induced noise in a two-dimensional centrifugal pump. Part I: Hydroacoustics", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 19(3), pp. 349-368 (2004).

24. Langthjem, M.A. and Olhoff, N. "A numerical study of flow-induced noise in a two-dimensional centrifugal pump, Part II: Hydroacoustics", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 19(3), pp. 369-386 (2004).

25. Rzentkowski, G. and Zbroja, S. "Experimental characterization of centrifugal pumps as an acoustic source at the blade-passing frequency", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 14(4), pp. 529-558 (2000).

26. Ramamurti, V. and Balasubramanian, P. "Steady state stress analysis of centrifugal fan impellers", Computers & Structures, 25(1), pp. 129-135 (1987).

27. Jonker, J.B. and Essen, V.G.T. "A finite element perturbation method for computing fluid induced forces on a centrifugal impeller, rotating and whirling in a volute casing", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 40, pp. 269-294 (1997).

28. Samir, L. and Nermina, Z. "Mode shapes of centrifugal pump impeller", Trends in the Development of Machinery and Associated Technology, B&H, pp. 18-22 (2002).

29. Bhope, D.V. and Padole, P.M. "Experimental and theoretical analysis of stresses, noise and flow in centrifugal fan impeller", Mechanism and Machine Theory, 39(12), pp. 1257-1271 (2004).

30. Arewar, A.P. and Bhope, D.V. "Stress analysis of axial ow fan impeller", International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3, pp. 2086-2090 (2013).

31. Das, A., Roy. A.K., and Kumar, K. "Design and stress analysis of a mixed flow pump impeller", International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Applications, 1(5), pp. 1-7 (2013).

32. Kan, K., Zheng, Y., Fu, S., Liu, H., Yang, C., and Zhang, X. "Dynamic stress of impeller blade of shaft extension tubular pump device based on bidirectional fluid-structure interaction", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31(4), pp. 1561-1568 (2017).

33. Kumar, A., Jain, K.K., Dave, R.K., and Choudhary, A. "CFD analysis of centrifugal pump impeller having different exit blade width, exit diameter and trailing edge blade angle to enhance performance", International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 4(5), pp. 1231-1239 (2017).

34. Kocaaslan, O., Ozgoren, M., Babayigit, O., and Aksoy, M.H. "Numerical investigation of the effect of number of blades on centrifugal pump performance", In AIP Conference Proceedings, 1863(1), pp. 1-4 (2017).

35. Srivastava, S., Roy, A.K., and Kumar, K. "Design of a mixed flow pump impeller blade and its validation using stress analysis", Procedia Mater Sci., 6, pp. 417- 424 (2014).

36. Horlock, J.H., Axial Flow Compressor - Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Butterworth Scientific Publications, London (1958).

37. Zindani, D., Roy, A.K., and Kumar, K. "Design of impeller blade of mixed flow pump: A comparative analysis", In Design and Optimization of Engineering Products, K. Kumar, and J.P. Davim, Eds., pp. 37-66, IGI Global, USA (2018).

38. Zindani, D., Roy, A.K., and Kumar, K. "Comparison of stresses in blade of a mixed flow pump impeller designed using mean stream line method and free vortex method", Materials Today: Proceedings, 4(8),pp. 9333-9340 (2017).

Transactions on Mechanical Engineering (B)

January and February 2020Pages 350-360