Application of ordinary fiber-reinforced concrete layer in in-plane retrofitting of unreinforced masonry walls: Test and modeling

Document Type : Article


1 Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran

2 Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran


The masonry walls should have sucient in-plane strength and sti ness to withstand the seismic loads during strong ground shakings. Di erent retro tting techniques have been proposed for improving in-plane behavior of the unreinforced masonry (URM) walls. This study focuses on experimental evaluation and numerical simulation of a simple practical retro tting technique employing Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) surface layer.
The simple FRC mix has conventional and available ber, low ber content, ordinary mix design, and applicable construction procedure. E ects of FRC mix properties, including ber type, ber content, and surface layer thickness, on in-plane behavior of masonry panels made up of conventional solid clay bricks are evaluated through experimental study in accordance with ASTM E-519 diagonal tension strength of masonry panels. In addition, a numerical simulation model for this retro tting technique in ABAQUS software is proposed
and validated with test results of bare and retro tted panels.


Main Subjects

1. FEMA P-774 "Unreinforced masonry buildings and earthquakes: Developing successful risk programs", Applied Technology Council (ATC), Redwood City, California (2009).
2. Da Porto, F., Guidi, G., Garbin, E., and Modena, C. "In-plane behavior of clay masonry walls: experimental testing and finite-element modeling", Journal of Structural Engineering, 136(11), pp. 1379-1392 (2010).
3. Eshaghi, S. and Sarrafi, B. "Effect of openings on lateral stiffness and strength of confined masonry walls", Scientica Iranica, Transaction A: Civil Engineering, 21(3), pp. 457-468 (2014).
4. ELGawady, M.A., Lestuzzi, P., and Badoux, M. "A review of conventional seismic retrofitting techniques for URM", 13th. International Brick and Block Masonry Conference, Amsterdam (2004).
5. Karantoni, F.V. and Fardis, M.N. "Effectiveness of seismic strengthening techniques for masonry buildings", Journal of Structural Engineering, 118(7), pp. 1884-1902 (1992).
6. ELGawady, M.A., Lestuzzi, P., and Badoux, M. "Retrofitting of masonry walls using shotcrete", NZSEE Conference, pp. 45-54 (2006).
7. Ghiassi, B., Soltani, M., and Tasnimi A.A. "Evaluation of masonry structures strengthened with reinforced concrete layers", Journal of Structural Engineering, 138, pp. 729-743 (2012).
8. Raissi Dehkordi, M., Yekrangnia, M., Eghbali, M., and Mahdizadeh, A.R. "Report for retrofit procedure of school buildings in Iran", 2nd European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Istanbul (2014).
9. Kadam, S.B., Singh, Y., and Li, B. "Strengthening of unreinforced masonry using welded wire mesh and micro-concrete - Behavior under in-plane action", Construction and Building Materials, 54, pp. 247-257 (2014).
10. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), ASTM E 519-10. Standard Test Method for Diagonal Tension (shear) in Masonry Assemblages (2010).
11. ELGawady, M.A., Lestuzzi, P., and Badoux, M. "Aseismic retrofitting of unreinforced masonry walls using FRP", Composites: Part B, 37, pp. 148-162 (2006).
12. Luccioni, B. and Rougier, V.C. "In-plane retrofitting of masonry panels with fibre reinforced composite materials", Construction and Building Materials, 25, pp. 1772-1788 (2011).
13. Luccioni, B. and Rougier, V.C. "Numerical analysis of fibre reinforced polymer retrofitted masonry panels", Engineering Structures, 49, pp. 360-372 (2013).
14. Santa-Maria, H. and Alcaino, P. "Repair of in-plane shear damaged masonry walls with external FRP", Construction and Building Materials, 25, pp. 1172- 1180 (2011).
15. Luccioni, B. and Rougier, V.C. "Shear behavior of brick-mortar interface in CFRP retrofitted or repaired masonry", International Journal of Mechanical Science, 52, pp. 602-611 (2010).
16. El-Diasity, M., Okail, H., Kamal, O., and Said, M. "Structural performance of confined masonry walls retrofitted using ferro cement and GFRP under inplane cyclic loading", Engineering Structures, 94, pp. 54-69 (2015).
17. Konthesingha, K.M.C., Masia, M.J., Petersen, R.B., Mojsilovic, N., Simundic, G., and Page, A.W. "Shear response of damaged masonry walls retrofitted with NSM FRP strips - An experimental evaluation", Engineering Structures, 50, pp. 126-136 (2013).
18. Ismail, N., Petersen, R.B., Masia, M.J., and Ingham, J.M. "Diagonal shear behavior of unreinforced masonry wallets strengthened using twisted steel bars", Construction and Building Materials, 25, pp. 4386- 4393 (2011).
19. Ismail, N. and Ingham, J.M. "In-plane and out-ofplane testing of unreinforced masonry walls strengthened using polymer textile reinforced mortar", Engineering Structures, 118, pp. 167-177 (2016).
20. Basili, M., Maracari, G., and Vestroni, F. "Nonlinear analysis of masonry panels strengthened with textile reinforced mortar", Engineering Structures, 113, pp. 245-258 (2016).
21. Babaeidarabad, S., Arboleda, D., Loreto, G., and Nanni, A. "strengthening of un-reinforced concrete masonry walls with fabric-reinforced-cementitiousmatrix", Construction and Building Materials, 65, pp. 243-253 (2014).
22. Papanicolau, C.G., Triantafillou, T., Karlos, K., and Papathantasiou, M. "Textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) versus FRP as strengthening material of URM walls: in-plane cyclic loading", Materials and Structures, 40, pp. 1081-1097 (2007).
23. Papanicolaou, C., Triantafillou, T., and Lekka, M. "Externally bonded grids as strengthening and seismic retrofitting materials of masonry panels", Construction and Building Materials, 25, pp. 504-514 (2011).
24. Baloevic, G., Radnic, J., Grgic, N., and Matesan, D. "The application of a reinforced plaster mortar for seismic strengthening of masonry structures", Composites Part B, 93, pp. 190-202 (2016).
25. D'Ambrisi, A., Mezzi, M., Feo, L., and Berardi, V.P. "Analysis of masonry structures strengthened with polymeric net reinforced cementitious matrix materials", Composite Structures, 113, pp. 264-271 (2014).
26. Spinella, N., Colajanni, P., and Recupero, A. "Experimental in situ behavior of unreinforced masonry elements retrofitted by pre-tensioned stainless steel ribbons", Construction and Building Materials, 73, pp. 740-753 (2014).
27. Farooq, S.H., Shahid, I., and Ilyas, M. "Seismic performance of masonry strengthened with steel strips", KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 18(7), pp. 2170- 2180 (2014).
28. Borri, A., Castori, G., and Corradi, M. "Shear behavior of masonry panels strengthened by high strength steel cords", Construction and Building Materials, 25, pp. 494-503 (2011).
29. Arisoy, B., Ercan, E., and Demir, A. "Strengthening of brick masonry with PVA fiber reinforced cement stucco", Construction and Building Materials, 79, pp. 255-262 (2015).
30. Lin, Y.W., Biggs, D., Wotherspoon, L., and Ingham, J.M. "In-plane strengthening of unreinforced concrete masonry wallettes using ECC shotcrete", Journal of Structural Engineering, 140(11), 04014081 (2014).
31. Lin, Y.W., Wotherspoon, L., Scott, A., and Ingham, J.M. "In-plane strengthening of clay brick unreinforced masonry wallettes", Engineering Structures, 66, pp. 57-65 (2014).
32. Sevil, T., Baran, M., Bilir, T., and Canbay, E. "Use of steel fiber reinforced mortar for seismic strengthening", Construction and Building Materials, 25, pp. 892-899 (2011).
33. Koutromanos, I., Kyriakides, M., Stavridis, A., Billington, S., and Shing, P. "Shake-table tests of a 3- story masonry-infilled RC frame retrofitted with composite materials", Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE, 139, pp. 1340-1351 (2013).
34. Koutromanos, I. and Shing, P. "Numerical study of masonry-infilled RC frames retrofitted with ECC overlays", Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE, 140, pp. 1-12 (2014).
35. Dehghani, A., Nateghi-Alahi, F., and Fischer, G. "Engineered cementitious composites for strengthening masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames", Engineering Structures, 105, pp. 197-208 (2015).
36. BS EN 12390-2:2009, Testing Hardened Concrete. Making and Curing Specimens for Strength Tests (2009).
37. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), ASTM C 78M-15. Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third- Point Loading) (2015).
38. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), ASTM C 270-14. Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry (2014).
39. Najafgholipour, M.A., Maheri, M.R., and Lourenco, P.B. "Capacity interaction in brick masonry under simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane loads", Construction and Building Materials, 38, pp. 619-626 (2013).
40. Kwak, Y.K., Eberhard, M.O., Kim, W.S., and Kim, J. "Shear strength of steel fiber-reinforced concrete beams without stirrups", ACI Structural Journal, 99(4), pp. 530-538 (2002).
41. Maheri, M.R., Najafgholipour, M.A., and Rajabi, A.R. "The influence of mortar head joints on the in-plane and out-of-plane seismic strength of brick masonry walls", Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, 35(C1), pp. 63-79 (2011).
42. Aguera, N.D., Tornello, M.E., and Frau, C.D. "Structural response of unreinforced masonry walls", Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 10, pp. 219-231 (2016).
43. Lee, J. and Fenves, G.L. "Plastic damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures", Journal of Engineering Mechanics (ASCE), 124(8), pp. 892-900 (1998).
44. ABAQUS Analysis user's manual 6.10-EF, Dassault Systems Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA (2010).
45. Abdou, L., Saada, R.A., Meftah, F., and Mebarki, A. "Experimental investigations of the joint-mortar behaviour", Mechanics Research Communications, 33(3), pp. 370-384 (2006).
46. Bazant, Z.P. and Li, Z. "Modulus of rupture: size effect due to fracture initiation in boundary layer", Journal of Structural Engineering (ASCE), 121(9), pp. 728-739 (1995).
47. Kaushik, H.B., Durgesh, C.R., and Sudhir K.J. "Stress-strain characteristics of clay brick masonry under uniaxial compression", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (ASCE), 19(9), pp. 728-739 (2007).
48. ACI 318-14, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, American Concrete Institute (2014).
49. Hognestad, E., A Study of Combined Bending and Axial Load in Reinforced Concrete Members, University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 399 (1955).
50. Kent, D.C. and Park, R. "Flexural members with confined concrete", Journal of Structural Division, Proceedings of American Society of Civil Engineers, 97(ST7), pp. 1969-1990 (1971).
51. Tan, K.H. and Mansur, M.A. "Shear transfer in reinforced fiber concrete", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (ASCE), 2(4), pp. 202-214 (1990).
52. Mazroi, A., Yaghoubifar, A., Majedi Ardakani, M.H., Zeidabadi Nejad, E., and Jafarpour, F. "Experimental study of mechanical properties of common sand and cement mortar (for masonry)", Research Report, BHRC Publication, Tehran, Iran (2012).
53. Najafgholipour, M.A. "The effect of lack of mortar in head joints on the in-plane shear strength of unreinforced brick walls", M.Sc. Thesis, Shiraz University, Iran (2007).