A comprehensive study of the leaching behavior and dissolution kinetics of copper oxide ore in sulfuric acid lixiviant

Document Type : Article


1 Faculty of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

2 Faculty of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.


The leaching behavior of an Iranian copper oxide ore in sulphuric acid was investigated in detail to evaluate the influence of various factors, to optimize the dissolution conditions and to determine the kinetics of the leaching. The results indicated that the increase in the leaching time and temperature enhanced the leaching rate of copper. The leaching rate increased up to a certain value with increasing the agitation rate, acid concentration and liquid/solid ratio and with further increment reduced. Agitaion rate had the most influence on the dissolution of copper. The 3D response surface graphs confirmed the interactive effects of sulphuric acid concentration, agitation speed, and liquid/solid ratio with temperature. About 91% copper content was leached at~13% sulphuric acid concentration, stirring rate of 600 rpm, liquid/solid ratio of 10 mL/g and 50 °C after 80 min leaching. The dissolution kinetics was examined according to heterogeneous models. The shrinking core model assuming rate control by diffusion through the product layer was found appropriate to describe the dissolution of copper in sulphuric acid solution. The activation energy was obtained to be 26.699 kJ/mol and equation representing the leaching kinetics of copper based on diffusion-controlled model was found to be 1-3(1-x)2/3+2(1-x) = 161.97×exp(-26.699×103/8.314×T)×t.


Main Subjects

1. Armbruster, U., Martin, A., and Krepel, A. \Hydrolysis
and oxidative decomposition of ethyl acetate in suband
super-critical water", Appl. Catal. B. Environ.,
31, pp. 263-73 (2001).
2. Arzutug, M.E., Kocakerim, M.M., and C opur, M.
\Leaching of malachite ore in NH3-saturated water",
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 43, pp. 4118-4123 (2004).
3. Naguman, P.N. \The chemistry and kinetics of oxidized
copper sul ding by sodium thiosulfate", Russ.
J. Non. Ferr. Met., 49, pp. 433-437 (2008).
4. Liu, Z.X., Yin, Z.L., Hu, H.P., and Chen, Q.Y. \Leaching
kinetics of low-grade copper ore with high-alkality
gangues in ammonia-ammonium sulphate solution", J.
Cent. South. Univ. T., 19, pp. 77-84 (2012).
5. Deng, J., Wen, S., Yin, Q., Wu, D., and Sun, Q.
\Leaching of malachite using 5-sulfosalicylic acid", J.
Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 71, pp. 20-27 (2017).
6. Haghighi, H.K., Moradkhani, D., Sedaghat, B., Rajaie
Najafabadi, M., and Behnamfard, A. \Production
of copper cathode from oxidized copper ores by
acidic leaching and two-step precipitation followed by
electrowinning", Hydrometallurgy, 133, pp. 111-117
7. Bingol, D. and Canbazoglu, M. \Dissolution kinetics
of malachite in sulphuric acid", Hydrometallurgy, 72,
pp. 159-165 (2004).
8. Crundwell, F.K. \The mechanism of dissolution of
minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions: Part III.
Application to oxide, hydroxide and sul de minerals",
Hydrometallurgy, 149, pp. 71-81 (2014).
9. Ata, O.N., Colak, S., Ekinci, Z., and Copur, M.
\Determination of the optimum conditions for leaching
of malachite ore in H2SO4 solutions", Chem. Eng.
Technol., 24, pp. 409-413 (2001).
10. Shayestehfar, M.R., Karimi Nasab, S., and Mohammadalizadeh,
H. \Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry
studies to evaluate oxide copper ores for heap
leaching in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran",
J. Hazard. Mater., 154, pp. 602-612 (2008).
11. Habbache, N., Alane, N., Djerad, S., and Tifouti, L.
\Leaching of copper oxide with di erent acid solutions",
Chem. Eng. J., 152, pp. 503-508 (2009).
B. Bayati et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions C: Chemistry and ... 25 (2018) 1412{1422 1421
12. Shabani, M., Irannajad, M., and Azadmehr, A. \Investigation
on leaching of malachite by citric acid", Int.
J. Min. Met. Mater., 19, pp. 782-786 (2012).
13. Deng, J., Wen, S., Deng, J., Wu, D., and Yang, J.
\Extracting copper by lactic acid from copper oxide
ore and dissolution kinetics", J. Chem. Eng. Jpn., 48,
pp. 1-7 (2015).
14. Ekmekyapar, A., Clolak, S., Alkan, M., and Kayadeniz,
I. \Dissolution kinetics of an oxidized copper ore
in water saturated by chlorine", J. Chem. Technol.
Biotechnol., 43, pp. 195-204 (1988).
15. Yartasi, A. and Copur, M. \Dissolution kinetics of
copper (ii) oxide in ammonium chloride solutions",
Miner. Eng., 9, pp. 693-698 (1996).
16. Ekmekyapar, A., Oya, R., and Kunkul, A. \Dissolution
kinetics of an oxidized copper ore in ammonium
chloride solution", Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q., 17, pp.
261-266 (2003).
17. Bingol, D., Canbazoglu, M., and Aydogan, S. \Dissolution
kinetics of malachite in ammonia/ammonium
carbonate leaching", Hydrometallurgy, 76, pp. 55-62
18. Calban, T., Colak, S., and Yesilyurt, M. \Optimization
of leaching of copper from oxidized copper ore in NH3-
(NH4)2SO4 medium", Chem. Eng. Commun., 192, pp.
1515-1524 (2005).
19. Liu, W., Tang, M.-T., Tang, C.-B., He, J., Yang, S.-
H., and Yang, J.-G. \Dissolution kinetics of low grade
complex copper ore in ammonia-ammonium chloride
solution", Trans. Nonferr Metals. Soc. China., 20, pp.
910-917 (2010).
20. Ekmekyapar, A., Aktas, E., Kunkul, A., and Demirkiran,
N. \Investigation of leaching kinetics of copper
from malachite ore in ammonium nitrate solutions",
Metall. Mater. Trans. B., 43, pp. 764-772 (2012).
21. Kunkul, A., Gulezgin, A., and Demirkiran, N. \Investigation
of the use of ammonium acetate as an
alternative lixiviant in the leaching of malachite ore",
Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng. Q., 19, pp. 25-34 (2013).
22. Wu, D., Wen, S., Yang, J., Deng, J., and Jiang, L.
\Dissolution kinetics of malachite as an alternative
copper source with an organic leach reagent", J. Chem.
Eng. Jpn., 46, pp. 677-682 (2013).
23. Ekmekyapar, A., Demirkran, N., Kunkul, A., and
Aktas, E. \Leaching of malachite ore in ammonium
sulfate solutions and production of copper oxide",
Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 32, pp. 155-165 (2015).
24. Mao, Y., Deng, J., Wen, S., Fang, J., and Yin, Q.
\Recovering copper from volcanic ASH by NH3.H2ONH2COONH4",
Russ. J. Non-ferrous Metals., 57, pp.
533-543 (2016).
25. Tanda, B.C., Eksteen, J.J., and Oraby, E.A. \An
investigation into the leaching behaviour of copper
oxide minerals in aqueous alkaline glycine solutions",
Hydrometallurgy, 167, pp. 153-162 (2017).
26. Deng, J., Wen, S., Deng, J., and Wu, D. \Extracting
copper from copper oxide ore by a zwitterionic
reagent and dissolution kinetics", Int. J. Miner. Metall.
Mater., 22, pp. 241-248 (2015).
27. Sun, X., Chen, B., Yang, X., and Liu, Y. \Technological
conditions and kinetics of leaching copper
from complex copper oxide ore", J. Cent. South Univ.
Technol., 16, pp. 936- 941 (2009).
28. Azizi, A. and Seyed Ghasemi, S.M. \A comparative
analysis of the dissolution kinetics of lead from low
grade oxide ores in HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and citric acid
solutions", Metall. Res. Technol., 114, p. 406 (2017).
DOI: org/10.1051/metal/2017014.
29. Seyed Ghasemi, S.M. and Azizi, A. \Alkaline leaching
of lead and zinc by sodium hydroxide: kinetics
modeling", J. Mater. Res. Technol. (2017). DOI:
org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2017.03.005 (In Pressed).
30. Espiari, S., Rashchi, F., and Sadrnezhaad, S.K. \Hydrometallurgical
treatment of tailings with high zinc
content", Hydrometallurgy, 82, pp. 54-62 (2006).
31. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd
Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1999).
32. Wang, R., Tang, M., Yang, S., Zhagn, W., Tang, C.,
He, J., and Yang, J. \Leaching kinetics of low grade
zinc oxide ore in NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system", J. Cent.
South. Univ. Technol., 15, pp. 679-83 (2008).
33. Adebayo, A.O. and Olasehinde, E.F. \Leaching kinetics
of lead from galena with acidi ed hydrogen
peroxide and sodium chloride solution", Trans. Inst.
Min. Metall., Sect. C., 124, pp. 137-142 (2015).
34. Lee, I.H., Wang, Y.-J., and Chern, J.-M. \Extraction
kinetics of heavy metal-containing sludge", J. Hazard.
Mater., 123, pp. 112-119 (2005).
35. Azizi, A. and Ghaedrahmati, R. \Optimizing and
evaluating the operational factors a ecting the cyanide
leaching circuit of the Aghdareh gold processing plant
using a CCD model", Proc. R. Soc. A., 471(2184), p.
20150681 (2015). DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2015.0681.