Document Type : Article

**Authors**

National Key Laboratory of Transient Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu, China

**Abstract**

Based on optimal Latin hypercube design for computer experiments, blind Kriging surrogate model and sequential quadratic programming method, the optimal design of the aerodynamic configuration of a 30mm tubular projectile is carried out with the use of commercial softwares, such as UG, ICEM CFD, FLUENT etc. The aerodynamic configuration has been optimized to minimize the drag coefficients at different Mach numbers and maximize the kinetic energies at given flight ranges. The optimal configuration is obtained and discussed. Finally, the similarities and differences of the flow structure and aerodynamic characteristics between the original and optimal tubular projectiles are compared. The numerical optimal method proposed in this paper for optimizing the tubular projectile can provide important guidances for the aerodynamic configuration design of projectiles.

**Keywords**

**Main Subjects**

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3. Sasoh, A., Higgins, A.J., Knowlen, C., et al. "Hollow projectile operation in the ram accelerator", Journal of Propulsion and Power, 12, pp. 1183-1186 (1996).

4. Weiss, D. "Field experiments on detonation propelled hollow projectiles", Report W7702-9-R782, Brome Laboratories Inc., Brigham, Quebec, Submitted to Defence R&D Canada-Suffield (2001).

5. Berner, C. and Giraud, M. "Supersonic wind tunnel investigation of a tubular projectile", 11th International Symposium on Ballistics, Brussels, Belgian, pp. 811- 820 (1989).

6. Dupuis, A.D. and Bernier, A. "Free-flight, wind tunnel tests and computational analysis of a spinning tubular projectile at supersonic speeds", 18th International Symposium on Ballistics, San Antonio, Texas, USA, pp. 70-77 (1999).

7. Ren, D.F., Tan, J.J., and Zhang, J. "Flowfield calculation of hollow projectile using implicit method based on unstructured meshes", Mechanics in Engineering, 28(5), pp. 24-27 (2006).

8. Chen, Y., Liao, Z.Q., Wang, T., et al. "Research on aerodynamic characteristic of hollow projectile with 12.7 mm diameter", Journal of System Simulation, 22(2), pp. 337-339 (2010).

9. Mukesh, R., Lingadurai, K., and Selvakumar, U. "Kriging methodology for surrogate-based airfoil shape optimization", Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39(10), pp. 7363-7373 (2014).

10. Priyadarshi, P., Alam, M., and Saroha, K. "Multidisciplinary multi-objective design optimization of sounding rocket fins", International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, 6(3), pp. 166-182 (2014).

11. Fowler, L. and Rogers, J. "Airframe performance optimization of guided projectiles using design of experiments", Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 52(6), pp. 1603-1613 (2015).

12. Wang, R., Zhang, H.J., Wang, G.D., et al. "Multidisciplinary integrated design optimization for an airbreathing air-to-air missile shape", Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica, 37(1), pp. 207-215 (2016).

13. Wang, G. and Shan, S. "Review of metamodeling techniques in support of engineering design optimization", Journal of Mechanical Design, 129(4), pp. 370-380 (2007).

14. Forrester, A.I.J. and Keane, A.J. "Recent advances in surrogate-based optimization", Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 45(1-3), pp. 50-79 (2009).

15. Viana, F.A.C., Simpson, T.W., Balabanov, V., et al. "Metamodeling in multidisciplinary design optimization: How far have we really come?", AIAA Journal, 52(4), pp. 670-690 (2014).

16. Joseph, V.R., Hung, Y., and Sudjianto, A. "Blind Kriging: a new method for developing Metamodels", Journal of Mechanical Design, 130(3), pp. 1-8 (2008).

17. Antony, J., Design of Experiments for Engineers and Scientists, Second Edition, Elsevier Ltd. (2014).

18. Mckay, M.D., Beckman, R.J., and Conover, W.J. "A comparison of three methods for selecting values of input variables in the analysis of output from a computer code", Technometrics, 21(2), pp. 239-245 (1979).

19. Jin, R., Chen, W., and Sudjianto, A. "An efficient algorithm for constructing optimal design of computer experiments", Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 134(1), pp. 268-287 (2005).

20. Wang, Z.Y. and Zhou, W.P., Theory and Method of Exterior Ballistic Design, Science Press (2004).

21. Wang, Q., Yu, X.G., Qiao, M.J., et al. "Rapid calibration based on SQP algorithm for coordinate frame of localizer", Journal of Zhejiang University (Engineering Science), 51(2), pp. 319-327 (2017).

Transactions on Mechanical Engineering (B)

January and February 2019Pages 311-322