Heat transfer correlation for a cross-flow jet impingement on a protruded surface

Document Type : Article


College of Engineering and Technology (CET), Bhubaneswar-751029, Odisha, India


This paper aimed at developing an empirical correlation for heat transfer from a protruded surface in the presence of a cross-flow jet. Finite volume method has been used to solve the governing differential equations for mass, momentum, energy as well as turbulence by imposing appropriate boundary conditions. Extensive numerical computations have been carried out to vary each of the independent variables to collect data for area-weighted average Nusselt number. Both the duct and the nozzle Reynolds number are varied from 6,000-20,000. The volume fraction and Prandtl number are also varied in the range of and , respectively. The number of protrusion (n) is varied from 1 to 4. A nonlinear regression analysis has been executed using CFD data to develop an empirical correlation for the Nusselt number in terms of pertinent independent parameters. The volume fraction of the nanofluid is found to be the most significant parameter to influence heat transfer rate among all other parameters. It has been observed that the predicted Nusselt number matches well with the computed one. The variations of the Nusselt number as the function of the independent parameters has been demonstrated. The present numerical methodologies have been validated with some open literature.


Main Subjects

1. Choi, S.U.S. Enhancing thermal conductivity of uids with nanoparticles", ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, San Francisco, CA (1995). 2. Lee, S., Choi, S.U.S., Li, S., and Eastman, J.A. Measuring thermal conductivity of uid containing oxide nanoparticles", Journal of Heat Transfer, 121, pp. 280{289 (1999). 1228 S. Rout et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions B: Mechanical Engineering 27 (2020) 1218{1229 3. Eastman, J.A., Choi, S.U.S., Li, S., Yu, W., and Thompson, L.J. Anomalously increased e_ective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanouids containing copper nanoparticles", Applied Physics Letters, 78, pp. 718{720 (2001). 4. Karthikeyan, N.R., Philip, J., and Raj, B. E_ect of clustering on the thermal conductivity of nanouids", Materials Chemistry and Physics, 109, pp. 50{55 (2008). 5. Chandrasekar, M., Suresh, S., and Bose, A.C. Experimental investigations and theoretical determination of thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3/water nanouid", Experimental Thermal Fluid Science, 34, pp. 210{216 (2010). 6. Yu, W., Xie, H., Chen, L., and Li, Y. Enhancement of thermal conductivity of kerosene based Fe3O4 nanouids prepared via phase-transfer method", Colloids Surfaces A, 355, pp. 109{113 (2010). 7. Pak, B.C., and Cho, Y.I. Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed uids with submicron metallic oxide particle", Experimental Heat Transfer, 11, pp. 151{170 (1998). 8. Wen, D., and Ding, Y. Experimental investigation into convective heat transfer of nanouid at the entrance region under laminar ow conditions", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 47, pp. 5181{5188 (2004). 9. Li, Q., Xuan, Y., and Wang J. Experimental investigation on transport properties of magnetic uids", Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 30, pp. 109{ 116 (2005). 10. Xuan, Y. and Li, Q. Investigation on convective heat transfer and ow features of nanouids", Journal of Heat Transfer, 125, pp. 151{155 (2003). 11. Vajjha, R.S., Das, D.K., and Ray, D.R. Development of new correlations for the Nusselt number and the friction factor under turbulent ow of nanouids in at tubes", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 80, pp. 353{367 (2015). 12. Suresh, S., Venkitaraj, K.P., Selvakumar, P., et al. E_ect of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanouid in heat transfer", Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 38, pp. 54{60 (2012). 13. Xuan, Y. and Roetzel, W. Conception for heat transfer correlation of nanouids", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 43, pp. 3701{3707 (2000). 14. Raji, P., Akhavan-Behabadi, M.A., and Saeedinia, M. Pressure drop and thermal characteristics of CuObase oil nanouid laminar ow in attened tubes under constant heat ux", International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 8, pp. 964{971 (2011). 15. Zhang, H., Shao, S., Xu, H., et al. Heat transfer and ow features of Al2O3-water nanouids owing through a circular microchannel experimental results and correlations", Applied Thermal Engineering, 61, pp. 86{92 (2013). 16. Jafarimoghaddam, A. and Aberoumand, S. An empirical investigation on Cu/ethylene glycol nanouid through a concentric annular tube and proposing a correlation for predicting Nusselt number", Alexandria Engineering Journal, 55, pp. 1047{1052 (2016). 17. Sajadi, A.R. and Kazemi, M.H. Investigation of turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop of TiO2/water nanouid in circular tube", International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38, pp. 1474{1478 (2011). 18. Duangthongsuk, W. and Wongwises, S. An experimental study on the heat transfer performance and pressure drop of TiO2-water nanouids owing under a turbulent ow regime", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53, pp. 334{344 (2010). 19. Abbasin Arani, A.A. and Amani, J. Experimental investigation of diameter e_ect on heat transfer performance and pressure drop of TiO2-water nanouid", Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 44, pp. 520{ 533 (2013). 20. Anoop, K.B., Sundararajan, T., and Das, S.K. Effect of particle size on the convective heat transfer in nanouid in the developing region", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52, pp. 2189{2195 (2009). 21. Sheikholeslami, M., Gorji-Bandpy, M., and Ganji, D.D. Natural convection in a nanouid _lled concentric annulus between an outer square cylinder and an inner elliptic cylinder", Scientia Iranica B, 20, pp. 1241{1253 (2013). 22. Nemati, H., Farhadi, M., Sedighi, K., et al. Magnetic _eld e_ects on natural convection ow of nanouid in a rectangular cavity using lattice Boltzmann model", Scientia Iranica B, 20, pp. 1241{1253 (2013). 23. Khorasanizadeh, H., Amani, J., and Nikfar, M. Numerical investigation of Cu-water nanouid natural convection and entropy generation within a cavity with an embedded conductive ba_e", Scientia Iranica F, 19, pp. 1996{2003 (2012). 24. Wei, W., Cai, J., Hu, X., Han, Q., et al. Fractal analysis of the e_ect of particle aggregation distribution on thermal conductivity of nanouids", Physics Letters A, 380, pp. 2953{2956 (2016). 25. Siavashi, M., Yousofvand, R., and Rezanejad, S. Nanouid and porous _ns e_ect on natural convection and entropy generation of ow inside a cavity", Advanced Powder Technology, 29, pp. 142{156 (2018). 26. Mukherjee, A., Rout, S., and Barik, A.K. Heat transfer and entropy generation analysis of protruded surface in presence of a cross-ow jet using Al2O3- water nanouid", Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 5, pp. 327{338 (2018). 27. Bianco, V., Chiacchio, F., Manca, O., et al. Numerical investigation of nanouids forced convection in circular tubes", Applied Thermal Engineering, 29, pp. 3632{3642 (2009). S. Rout et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions B: Mechanical Engineering 27 (2020) 1218{1229 1229 28. Maiga, S.E.B., Palm, S.J., Nguyen, C.T., et al. Heat transfer enhancement in turbulent tube ow using Al2O3 nanoparticle suspension", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 16, pp. 275{292 (2006). 29. Akbarinia, A. and Behzadmehr, A. Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of nanouid in horizontal curved tubes", Applied Thermal Engineering, 27, pp. 1327{1337 (2007). 30. Wang, X., Xu, X., and Choi, S.U.S. Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle-uid mixture", Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 13, pp. 474{480 (1999). 31. Lee, S., Choi, S.U.S., Li, S., et al. Measuring thermal conductivity of uids containing oxide nanoparticles", Journal Heat Transfer, 121, pp. 280{289 (1999). 32. Barik, A.K., Dash, S.K., and Guha, A. Experimental and numerical investigation of air entrainment into an infrared suppression device", Applied Thermal Engineering, 75, pp. 33{44 (2015). 33. Boertza, H., Baars, A., Cieslinskib, J.T. et al. Numerical study of turbulent ow and heat transfer of nanouids in pipes", Heat Transfer Engineering, 39, pp. 241{251 (2018). Doi:/10.1080/01457632.2017.1295739 34. Mentor, F.R. Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications", AIAA Journal, 32, pp. 1598{1605 (1994). 35. Barik, A.K., Rout, S., and Mukherjee, A. Numerical investigation of heat transfer enhancement from protruded surface by cross-ow jet using Al2O3-water nanouid", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 101, pp. 550{561 (2016). 36. Launder, B.E. and Spalding, D.B. The numerical computation of turbulent ows", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 3, pp. 2869{ 2879 (1974). 37. Zuckerman, N. and Lior, N. Impingement heat transfer: correlations and numerical modeling", Journal of Heat Transfer, 127, pp. 544{552 (2005). 38. Barik, A.K., Mukherjee, A., and Patro, P. Heat transfer enhancement from a small rectangular channel with di_erent surface protrusions by a turbulent cross ow jet", International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 98, pp. 32{41 (2015). 39. Bouhalleb, M. and Abbassi, H. Numerical investigation of heat transfer by CuO-water nanouid in rectangular enclosures", Heat Transfer Engineering, 37, pp. 13{23 (2016). 40. Sun, B., Qu, Y., and Yang, D. Heat transfer of single impinging jet with Cu nanouids", Applied Thermal Engineering, 102, pp. 701{707 (2016).