Document Type: Article
Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Institute of Space Technology Islamabad, Pakistan
Finite element method (FEM) is used to study the hydrothermal characteristics of the nano-fluid subjected to Brownian motion. For effective thermal conductivity and effective, viscosity Koo-Kleinstreuer-Li (KKL) model is used. It is observed that the dispersion of nano-particles in Newtonian liquid causes a significant increase in the effective thermal conductivity. This results based on the dispersion of nano-particles help engineers to design an efficient thermal system. A significant role of viscous dissipation on diffusion of momentum of wall into the fluid is observed. Therefore, dissipations effects cannot be ignored while designing thermal systems. The buoyant force is responsible for the effect of electromagnetic thermal radiations on the velocity of fluid convectively heated surface enhances the rate of generation of entropy. This study also recommends that nano-fluids are the best coolants as compare to the base fluids. Imposition of magnetic field causes more entropy generation.