Lean design management using a gamified system

Document Type : Article


1 School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, 16846, Iran

2 School of Property, Construction and Project Management, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia

3 The Haskell & Irene Lemon Construction Science Division, College of Architecture, University of Oklahoma, 830 Van Vleet Oval, Room 294GH, Norman, OK 73019-6141, USA


Design process, due to its information- and innovation-intensive nature, is highly susceptible to change, thus waste. This attracted the attention of lean design/construction professionals in the past few years. However, limited, if any, researches have addressed this issue from the human behavior perspective. This research proposes a method that exploits the potential of the Last PlannerÒ System (LPS) in design management. The main contribution of this paper is improving the applicability of the LPS to design processes by incorporating a gamified pay-for-performance system to the normal practice of the LPS. It encourages motivating design engineers by granting them single point, autonomous responsibility to perform their tasks. To this end, the proposed method shifts the focus of design managers away from predicting the workflow and chronologies of design tasks towards motivating design engineers to eliminate non-value-adding works/time. To bolster the concept and examine the method, it was put into practice by construction design teams. Findings corroborate the efficiency of the method in eliminating the non-value-adding works from design processes. The findings are of practical value to consulting firms, especially design team managers who seek to maximize innovation, competency and quality outcome.


Main Subjects

1. Ballard, G. and Koskela, L. On the agenda of design
management research", Proceedings IGLC, pp. 52-69
2. Mazlum, S.K. and Pekericli, M.K. Lean design
management-an evaluation of waste items for architectural
design process", METU Journal of the Faculty of
Architecture, 33, pp. 1-20 (2016).
3. Koskela, L., Ballard, G., and Tanhuanpaa, V.P. Towards
lean design management", Proceedings of the 5th
Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean
Construction, Gold Coast, pp. 1-13 (1997).
4. Yu, H., Tweed, T., Al-Hussein, M., and Nasseri, R.,
Development of lean model for house construction
using value stream mapping", Journal of Construction
Engineering and Management, 135, pp. 782-790
5. Hopp, W.J. and Spearman, M.L., Factory Physics, 3rd
Edition, McGraw-Hill (2008).
6. Steward, D.V., Systems Analysis and Management:
Structure, Strategy, and Design, Petrocelli Books
7. Arashpour, M., Wake eld, R., Abbasi, B., Lee,
E.W.M., and Minas, J. O -site construction optimization:
Sequencing multiple job classes with time
constraints", Automation in Construction, 71, pp. 262-
270 (2016).
8. Goldratt, E.M., Critical Chain, North River Press
9. Ballard, H., The Last Planner System of Production
Control, University of Birmingham (2000).
10. Russell, M.M., Liu, M., Howell, G., and Hsiang, S.M.
Case studies of the allocation and reduction of time
bu er through use of the last planner system", Journal
of Construction Engineering and Management, 141, p.
04014068 (2015).
11. Fosse, R. and Ballard, G. Lean design management
in practice with the last planner system", 24th Annual
Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction,
Boston (2016).
24 M. Khanzadi et al./Scientia Iranica, Special Issue on: Socio-Cognitive Engineering 26 (2019) 15{25
12. Khan, S. and Tzortzopoulos, P. Improving design
ow with the last planner system: Two action
research studies", 23rd Annual Conference of the International
Group for Lean Construction, pp. 568-577
13. Hansen, G.K. and Olsson, N.O.E. Layered project{
layered process: lean thinking and
exible solutions",
Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 7,
pp. 70-84 (2011).
14. El. Rei , M.H. and Emmitt, S. Perceptions of lean
design management", Architectural Engineering and
Design Management, 9, pp. 195-208 (2013).
15. Bolviken, T., Gullbrekken, B., and Nyseth, K. Collaborative
design management", 18th Annual Conference
of the International Group for Lean Construction,
Haifa, Israel, pp. 103-112 (2010).
16. Hamzeh, F.R., Ballard, G., and Tommelein, I.D. Is
the last planner system applicable to design? A case
study", 17th Annual Conference of the International
Group for Lean Construction, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 165-
176 (2009).
17. Fundli, I.S. and Drevland, F. Collaborative design
management - A case study", 22nd Annual Conference
of the International Group for Lean Construction: Understanding
and Improving Project Based Production,
IGLC, pp. 627-638 (2014).
18. Rosas, E. Integrating the design structure matrix and
the last planner system into Building Design", 21th
Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean
Construction, Fortaleza, Brazil, pp. 389-398 (2013).
19. Vaagen, H. and Aas, B., A Multidisciplinary Framework
for Robust Planning and Decision-Making
in Dynamically Changing Engineering Construction
Projects, pp. 515-522 (2014).
20. Cameron, I., Hare, B., Du , R., and Maloney, B. An
investigation of approaches to worker engagement",
HSE RR516 (2006).
21. Xue, X., Shen, Q., and Ren, Z. Critical review of
collaborative working in construction projects: Business
environment and human behaviors", Journal of
Management in Engineering, 26, pp. 196-208 (2010).
22. Bartoska, J. and Subrt, T. The e ect of human agent
in project management", Central European Journal of
Operations Research, 20 pp. 369-382 (2012).
23. Parkinson, C.N., Parkinson's Law (1984).
24. Leach, L.P. Critical chain project management improves
project performance", Project Management
Journal (1999).
25. Kamma, D., Geetha, G., and Neela, J.P. Countering
Parkinson's law for improving productivity", Proceedings
of the 6th India Software Engineering Conference
on - ISEC, New York, USA, 13, pp. 91-96 (2013).
26. Buehler, R., Grin, D., and Ross, M. Exploring the
planning fallacy: Why people underestimate their task
completion times", Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 67, p. 366 (1994).
27. Roy, M.M., Christenfeld, N.J.S., and Mckenzie,
C.R.M. Underestimating the duration of future
events: memory incorrectly used or memory bias?",
Psychological Bulletin, 131, p. 738 (2005).
28. Williams, T., Modelling complex Projects, John Wiley
& Sons (2001).
29. Park, M. and Pe~na-Mora, F. Dynamic change management
for construction: introducing the change
cycle into model-based project management", System
Dynamics Review, 19, pp. 213-242 (2003).
30. Nepal, M.P., Park, M., and Son, B. E ects of schedule
pressure on construction performance", Journal of
Construction Engineering and Management, 132, pp.
182-188 (2006).
31. Hamzeh, F.R., Improving Construction Work
Role of Production Planning and Control (2009)
32. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., and Nacke, L.
From game design elements to gamefulness", Proceedings
of the 15th International Academic MindTrek
Conference on Envisioning Future Media Environments
- MindTrek'11, New York, USA, p. 9 (2011).
33. Juul, J., A Casual Revolution: Reinventing Video
Games and Their Players, MIT press (2010).
34. Paharia, R., Loyalty 3.0: How to Revolutionize Customer
and Employee Engagement with Big Data and
Gami cation, McGraw Hill Professional (2013).
35. Hamari, J. Transforming homo economicus into homo
ludens: A eld experiment on gami cation in a utilitarian
peer-to-peer trading service", Electronic Commerce
Research and Applications, 12, pp. 236-245 (2013).
36. Reiners, T., and Wood L., Gami cation in Education
and Business, Springer International Publishing
37. Ruhi, U. Level up your strategy: Towards a descriptive
framework for meaningful enterprise gami -
cation", Technology Innovation Management Review,
5, p. 5 (2015).
38. Locke, E.A. and Latham, G.P., New Developments in
Goal Setting and Task Performance, Routledge (2013).
39. Armstrong, M. and Murlis, H., Reward Management:
A Handbook of Remuneration Strategy and Practice,
Kogan Page Publishers (2007).
40. Obe, R. and Hsu, L., PostgreSQL: Up and Running,
O'Reilly Media, Inc. (2012).
41. Rossum, G.V., Python Reference Manual, Centrum
voor Wiskunde en Informatica (1995).
42. Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledge, Project Management
Institute, Inc., p. 616 (2013).