Soft Computing-based Approach on Capacity Prediction of FRP Strengthened RC Joints

Document Type : Article


1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.

2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Iran


Shear failure of the RC beam-column joints is a brittle failure which has no prior
warning and can induce tremendous damages because of collapse of column and joint before the
connected beam. This paper is focused on one particular method of strengthening the RC joints,
that is, the use of FRP composites as confining element. The results of previous studies have shown
that strengthening the RC beam-column joints with FRP composites can improve their shear
capacity. In this study, the data collected from the existing standards and studies regarding the FRp
strengthened RC joints were used to develop an artificial neural network model for predicting the
shear strength contribution of FRP jacket. The developed model was then used to evaluate the role
of different parameters on this contribution, and finally derive a formula for contribution of FRp
jacket to the shear strength of the RC beam-column joints.


Main Subjects

1. Fardis, M.N. and Khalili, H.H. FRP-encased concrete as a structural material", Magazine of Concrete Research, 34(121), pp. 191-202 (1982). 2. Lee, J. and Fenves, G.L. Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures", Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 124(8), pp. 892-900 (1998). 3. Antonopoulos, C.P. and Trianta_llou, T.C. Experimental investigation of FRP-strengthened RC beamcolumn joints", Journal of Composites for Construction, 7(1), pp. 39-49 (2003). 4. Parvin, A. and Granata, P. Investigation on the e_ects of _ber composites at concrete joints", Composites Part B: Engineering, 31(6), pp. 499-509 (2000). 5. Granata, P.J. and Parvin, A. An experimental study on Kevlar strengthening of beam-column connections", Composite Structures, 53(2), pp. 163-171 (2001). 6. Rosenblatt, F. The perceptron: A theory of statistical separability in cognitive system", Cornell Aeronautical Lab. Inc. Rep. No. VG-1196-G-1 (1958). 7. Yeung, W.T. and Smith, J.W. Damage detection in bridges using neural networks for pattern recognition of vibration signatures", Eng. Struct., 27(5), pp. 685- 698 (2005). DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2004.12.006 8. Huang, C.S., Hung, S.L., Wen, C.M., and Tu, T.T. A neural network approach for structural identi_cation and diagnosis of a building from seismic response data", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 32(2), pp. 187-206 (2003). 9. Neural Network Toolbox for Use with Matlab. User's Guide. Version 3.0. The MathWorks, Inc. (2006). 10. Naderpour, H., Ra_ean, A.H., and Fakharian, P. Compressive strength prediction of environmentally friendly concrete using arti_cial neural networks", Journal of Building Engineering, 16, pp. 213-219 (2018). 11. Vanajakshi, L. and Rilett, L.R. A comparison of the performance of arti_cial neural networks and support vector machines for the prediction of tra_c speed", IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, pp. 194-199 (2004). 12. Naderpour, H., Kheyroddin, A., and Amiri, G.G. Prediction of FRP-con_ned compressive strength of concrete using arti_cial neural networks", Composite Structures, 92(12), pp. 2817-2829 (2010). 13. Ahmadi, M., Naderpour, H., and Kheyroddin, A. Utilization of arti_cial neural networks to prediction of the capacity of CCFT short columns subject to short term axial load", Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 14(3), pp. 510-517 (2014). 14. Naderpour, H., Kheyroddin, A., Ghodrati Amiri, G., and Hoseini Vaez, S.R. Estimating the behavior of FRP-strengthened RC structural members using arti_cial neural networks", Procedia Engineering, 14, pp. 3183-3190 (2011). 15. Naderpour, H. and Alavi, S.A. A proposed model to estimate shear contribution of FRP in strengthened RC beams in terms of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system", Composite Structures, 170, pp. 215-227 (2017). 16. Ahmadi, M., Naderpour, H., and Kheyroddin, A. ANN model for predicting the compressive strength of circular steel-con_ned concrete", International Journal of Civil Engineering, 15(2), pp. 213-221 (2017). 17. Naderpour, H. and Mirrashid, M. Compressive strength of mortars admixed with wollastonite and microsilica", Materials Science Forum, 890 MSF, pp. 415-418 (2017). 18. Naderpour, H., Khatami, S.M., and Barros, R.C. Prediction of critical distance between two MDOF systems subjected to seismic excitation in terms of arti _cial neural networks", Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 61(3), pp. 516-529 (2017). 19. Naderpour, H., Ghodrati Amiri, G., Kheyroddin, A., and Hoseini Vaez, S.R. Seismic evaluation of retro_tted RC frames using neuro-fuzzy algorithms", Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011, pp. 446-452 (2011). 20. Akguzel, U. and Pampanin, S. E_ects of variation of axial load and bidirectional loading on seismic performance of GFRP retro_tted reinforced concrete exterior beam-column joints", Journal of Composites for Construction, 14(1), pp. 94-104 (2010). 21. Pantelides, C., Clyde, C., and Reaveley, L. Rehabilitation of R/C building joints with FRP composites", in 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand (2000). 22. Le-Trung, K. Experimental study of RC beamcolumn joints strengthened using CFRP composites", Composites Part B: Engineering, 41(1), pp. 76-85 (2010). 23. Mahmoud, M.H., Afefy, H.M., Kassem, N.M., and Fawzy, T.M. Strengthening of defected beam-column joints using CFRP", Journal of Advanced Research, 5(1), pp. 67-77 (2014). 24. Dalalbashi, A., Eslami, A., and Ronagh, H. Numerical investigation on the hysteretic behavior of RC joints retro_tted with di_erent CFRP con_gurations", Journal of Composites for Construction, 17(3), pp. 371-382 (2013). 25. Gergely, J., Pantelides, C.P., and Reaveley, L.D. Shear strengthening of RCT-joints using CFRP composites", Journal of Composites for Construction, 4(2), pp. 56-64 (2000). 26. Karayannis, C.G. and Sirkelis, G.M. Strengthening and rehabilitation of RC beam-column joints using carbon-FRP jacketing and epoxy resin injection", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 37(5), pp. 769-790 (2008). 27. Vatani-Oskouei, A. Repairing of seismically damaged RC exterior beam-column connection using CFRP", Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 29(21), pp. 3257-3274 (2010). 28. Al-Salloum, Y.A. Textile-reinforced mortar versus FRP as strengthening material for seismically de_cient RC beam-column joints", Journal of Composites for Construction, 15(6), pp. 920-933 (2011). 29. Ha, G.-J. Seismic improvement of RC beam-column joints using hexagonal CFRP bars combined with CFRP sheets", Composite Structures, 95, pp. 464-470 (2013). 30. Hamad, Bilal S. and Faten, G. Ibrahim E_ect of FRP con_nement on bond strength of hooked bars: Normalstrength concrete structures", Journal of Composites for Construction, 13(4), pp. 279-291 (2009). 31. Alsayed, S.H. Seismic response of FRP-upgraded exterior RC beam-column joints", Journal of Composites for Construction, 14(2), pp. 195-208 (2010). 32. Tsonos, A.G. E_ectiveness of CFRP-jackets and RC-jackets in post-earthquake and pre-earthquake retro_tting of beam-column subassemblages", Engineering Structures, 30(3), pp. 777-793 (2008). 33. Sheela, S. and Anu Geetha, B. Studies on the performance of RC beam-column joints strengthened using di_erent composite materials", Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Series A, 93(1), pp. 63-71 (2012). 34. Kumar, E.S., Murugesan, A., and Thirugnanam, G. Experimental study on behavior of retro_tted with FRP wrapped RC beam-column exterior joints subjected to cyclic loading", International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, 1(1), p. 64 (2010). 35. Ghobarah, A. and El-Amoury, T. Seismic rehabilitation of de_cient exterior concrete frame joints", Journal of Composites for Construction, 9(5), pp. 408- 416 (2005). 36. Singh, V. Experimental studies on strength and ductility of CFRP jacketed reinforced concrete beamcolumn joints", Construction and Building Materials, 55, pp. 194-201 (2014). 37. Del Vecchio, C. Experimental investigation of exterior RC beam-column joints retro_tted with FRP systems", Journal of Composites for Construction, 18(4), p. 04014002 (2014). 38. Shrestha, R., Smith, S.T., and Samali, B. Strengthening RC beam-column connections with FRP strips", Institution of Civil Engineers. Proceedings. Structures and Buildings (2009). 39. Ravi, R.S. and Arulraj, P.G. Experimental investigation on behavior of reinforced concrete beam column joints retro_tted with GFRP-AFRP hybrid wrapping", International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, 1(2), p. 245 (2010). 40. Niroomandi, A. Seismic performance of ordinary RC frames retro_tted at joints by FRP sheets", Engineering Structures, 32(8), pp. 2326-2336 (2010). 41. Li, B. and Chua, H.G. Seismic performance of strengthened reinforced concrete beam-column joints using FRP composites", Journal of Structural Engineering, 135(10), pp. 1177-1190 (2009). 42. Masi, A. Study of the seismic behavior of external RC beam-column joints through experimental tests and numerical simulations", Engineering Structures, 52, pp. 207-219 (2013). 43. Ascione, L. and Berardi, V. Anchorage device for FRP laminates in the strengthening of concrete structures close to beam-column joints", Composites Part B: Engineering, 42(7), pp. 1840-1850 (2011). 44. Engindeniz, M., Kahn, L.F., and Abdul-Hamid, Z. Repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete beam-column joints: State of the art", ACI Structural Journal, 102(2), pp. 187-197 (2005). 45. Said, A.M. and Nehdi, M.L. Use of FRP for RC frames in seismic zones: Part I. Evaluation of FRP beam-column joint rehabilitation techniques", Applied Composite Materials, 11(4), pp. 205-226 (2004). 46. Ghobarah, A. and Said, A. Seismic rehabilitation of beam-column joints using FRP laminates", Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 5(01), pp. 113-129 (2001). 47. Al-Salloum, Y.A. Seismic behavior of as-built, ACIcomplying, and CFRP-repaired exterior RC beamcolumn joints", Journal of Composites for Construction, 15(4), pp. 522-534 (2010). 48. Ugale Ashish, B. and Raut Harshalata, R. Investigation on behaviour of reinforced concrete beam column joints retro_tted with FRP wrapping", International Journal of Civil Engineering Research, 5, pp. 2278- 3652 (2014). 49. Gencoglu, M. and Mobasher, B. The strengthening of the de_cient RC exterior beam-column joints using CFRP for seismic excitation", in Proceedings of the 3 rd International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation (2007). 50. Dalalbashi, A., Eslami, A., and Ronagh, H. Plastic hinge relocation in RC joints as an alternative method of retro_tting using FRP", Composite Structures, 94(8), pp. 2433-2439 (2012). 51. Lee, W.-T., Chiou, Y.-J., and Shih, M. Reinforced concrete beam-column joint strengthened with carbon _ber reinforced polymer", Composite Structures, 92(1), pp. 48-60 (2010). 52. Design and use of externally bonded _ber reinforced polymer reinforcement (FRP EBR) for reinforced concrete structures", in FIB Bulletin 14, Lausanne, Switzerland (2001). 53. Guide for the design and construction of externally bonded FRP systems for strengthening concrete structures", in Rep. No. 440 2R-08, American Concrete Institute (ACI) (2008). 54. Saravanan, J. and Kumaran, G. Joint shear strength of FRP reinforced concrete beam-column joints", Central European Journal of Engineering, 1(1), pp. 89-102 (2011). 55. Leung, C.K., Ng, M.Y., and Luk, H.C. Empirical approach for determining ultimate FRP strain in FRPstrengthened concrete beams", Journal of Composites for Construction, 10(2), pp. 125-138 (2006). 56. Ilkhani, M., Moradi, E., and Lavasani, M. Calculation of torsion capacity of the reinforced concrete beams using arti_cial neural network", Soft Computing in Civil Engineering, 1(2), pp. 8-18 (2017).