Analysis of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in HIFU treatment using Westervelt equation

Document Type: Article


1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., Tehran, Iran

2 Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. BOX: 11155-9567, Tehran, Iran


Currently, the HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) therapy method is known as one of the most advanced surgical techniques in tumor ablation therapy. Simulation of the non-linear acoustic wave and tissue interaction is essential in HIFU planning to improve the usefulness and efficiency of treatment.
In this paper, linear, thermoviscous and nonlinear equations are applied using two different media, namely liver and water. Transducer power of 8.3-134 Watts with the frequency of 1.1 MHz is considered as the range of study to analyze the wave and tissue interaction. Results indicate that the maximum focal pressure of about 0.5-4.3 MPa can be achieved for transducer power of 8.3 to 134 W. Simultaneous solving of the acoustic pressure equation and Pennes’s bio-heat equation are used to determine the temperature rise at focal point and the ablated area. Finally, the linear and nonlinear simulations are compared, and the turning point of transition from linearity to nonlinearity is determined.
The simulated results provide information about the behavior of the focalized ultrasound in interaction with liver tissue. The performance of phased array HIFU transducer can be improved for treatment considering the lesion size, temperature rise in tissue and choosing best range of operational power.


Main Subjects