Document Type : Article

**Authors**

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

**Abstract**

In the event of an earthquake, local site conditions such as soil characteristics, dimension of topographic irregularities, seismic bedrock depth, etc. and also characteristics of incident wave have important effects on seismic ground response. In this study, Finite Element Method (FEM) coupled to Viscous Boundaries is used to evaluate the effect of empty two-dimensional valleys on amplification or attenuation of seismic waves. Parametric studies carry out and the effects of dimension of the topography, frequency of the incident wave and bedrock depth on the seismic ground response are considered using non-linear method in a time domain analysis. Results are shown by means of horizontal and vertical amplification ratio in valley span and its surrounding area. It is concluded that displacement variation on ground surface due to topographical effects is a considerable factor to select a site location or design structures in the valley mount and its surrounding area.

**Keywords**

**Main Subjects**

1. Kramer, S.L. Geotechnical earthquake engineering",

In Prentice-Hall International Series in Civil Engineering

and Engineering Mechanics, Prentice-Hall,

New Jersey (1996).

2. Idriss, I. Finite element analysis for the seismic

response of earth banks", Journal of Soil Mechanics

& Foundations Div, 94, pp. 617-636 (1968).

3. Celebi, M. Topographical and geological amplications

determined from strong-motion and aftershock

records of the 3 March 1985 Chile earthquake", Bull.

Seismol. Soc. Am., 77, pp. 1147-1167 (1987).

4. Celebi, M. Topographical and geological ampli-

cation: case studies and engineering implications",

Struct. Saf., 10, pp. 199-217 (1991).

5. Bouchon, M. and Barker, J.S. Seismic response of

a hill: the example of Tarzana, California", Bull.

Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, pp. 66-72 (1996).

6. Celebi, M. Northridge (California) earthquake:

unique ground motions and resulting spectral and site

eects", International Conference on Seismic Zonation,

pp. 988-995 (1996).

1092 N. Soltani and M.H. Bagheripour/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1083{1093

7. Gazetas, G., Kallou, P., and Psarropoulos, P. Topography

and soil eects in the MS 5.9 Parnitha (Athens)

earthquake: the case of Adames", Nat. Hazards., 27,

pp. 133-169 (2002).

8. Marsan, P., Milana, G., Pugliese, A., and Sano',

T. Local amplication eects recorded by a local

strong motion network during the 1997 Umbria-

Marche Earthquake", Proc. 12th World Conference on

Earthquake Engineering, Aukland New Zealand, Paper

No. 1046 (2000).

9. Soltani, N. and Bagheripour, M.H. Seismic wave

scatter study in valleys using coupled 2D nite element

approach and absorbing boundaries", Scientia Iranica,

24, pp. 110-120 (2017).

10. Di Fiore, V. Seismic site amplication induced by topographic

irregularity: Results of a numerical analysis

on 2D synthetic models", Eng. Geol., 114, pp. 109-115

(2010).

11. Kham, M., Semblat, J.F., and Bouden-Romdhane,

N. Amplication of seismic ground motion in the

Tunis basin: Numerical BEM simulations vs experimental

evidences", Engineering Geology, 154, pp. 80-

86 (2013).

12. Nguyen, K.V. and Gatmiri, B. Evaluation of seismic

ground motion induced by topographic irregularity",

Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 27, pp. 183-188 (2007).

13. He, CH. H., Wang, J.T., Zhang, CH.H., and Jin,

F. Simulation of broadband seismic ground motions

at dam canyons by using a deterministic numerical

approach", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 76, pp. 136-

144 (2015).

14. Bouckovalas, G.D. and Papadimitriou, A.G. Numerical

evaluation of slope topography eects on seismic

ground motion", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 25, pp.

547-558 (2005).

15. Zhao, C. and Valliappan, S. Incident P and SV wave

scattering eects under dierent canyon topographic

and geological conditions", Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods

Geomech., 17, pp. 73-94 (1993).

16. Duzgun, O.A. and Budak, A. A study on soilstructure

interaction analysis in canyon-shaped topographies",

Sadhana., Indian Academy of Sciences.,

35, pp. 255-277 (2010).

17. Kamalian, M., Jafari, M.K., Sohrabi-bidar, A.,

Razmkhah, A., and Gatmiri, B. Time-domain twodimensional

site response analysis of non-homogeneous

topographic structures by a hybrid BE/FE method",

Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 26, pp. 753-765 (2006).

18. Gatmiri, B., Arson, C., and Nguyen, K. Seismic site

eects by an optimized 2D BE/FE method I. Theory,

numerical optimization and application to topographical

irregularities", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 28, pp.

632-645 (2008).

19. Lo Presti, D., and Ferrini, M., Special Issue of the

Italian Geotechnical Review: The Seismic Response

Analysis at Castelnouvo Garfagnana (2002).

20. Yoshida, N., Seismic Ground Response Analysis,

Springer (2015).

21. Bagheripour, M.H. and Marandi, S.M. A Numerical

model for unbounded soil domain in earthquake SSI

analysis using periodic innite elements", Int. J. Civ.

Eng., 3, pp. 96-111 (2005).

22. Bagheripour, M.H., Rahgozar, R., and Malekinejad,

M. Ecient analysis of SSI problems using innite

elements and wavelet theory", Geomech. Eng., 2(4),

pp. 229-252 (2010).

23. Nimtaj, A. and Bagheripour, M.H. Non-linear seismic

response analysis of the layered soil deposit using

hybrid frequency-time domain (HFTD) approach",

European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering,

17, pp. 1039-1056 (2013).

24. Kara, H.F. and Trifunac, M.D. Two-dimensional

earthquake vibrations in sedimentary basins-SH

waves", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 63, pp. 69-82

(2014).

25. Ghaemian, M. and Sohrabi-Gilani, M. Seismic responses

of arch dams due to non-uniform ground

motions", Scientia Iranica, 19, pp. 1431-1436 (2012).

26. Khanbabazadeh, H. and Iyisan, R. A numerical study

on the 2D behavior of the single and layered clayey

basins", Bull Earthquake Eng., 12, pp. 1515-1536

(2014).

27. Javdanian, H., Jafarian, Y., and Haddad, A. Predicting

damping ratio of ne-grained soils using soft computing

methodology", Arabian Journal of Geosciences,

8, pp. 3959-3969 (2015).

28. Jafarian, Y., Haddad, A., and Javdanian, H. Predictive

model for normalized shear modulus of cohesive

soils", Acta Geodynamica et Geomaterialia, 11, pp. 89-

100 (2014).

29. Soltani, N. and Bagheripour, M.H. Boundary simulation

with dampers using nite element method in nonlinear

seismic ground response analysis", Geodynamics

Research International Bulletin, 3, pp. 16-26 (2015).

30. Lermo, J. and Chavez-Garca, F.J. Site eect evaluation

using spectral ratios with only one station", Bull.

Seismol. Soc. Am., 83, pp. 1574-1594 (1993).

31. LeBrun, B., Hatzfeld, D., Bard, P., and Bouchon,

M. Experimental study of the ground motion on a

large scale topographic hill at Kitherion (Greece)", J.

Seismolog., 3, pp. 1-15 (1999).

32. Fu, L.Y. Rough surface scattering: comparison of

various approximation theories for 2D SH waves", Bull.

Seismol. Soc. Am., 95, pp. 646-663 (2005).

N. Soltani and M.H. Bagheripour/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1083{1093 1093

33. Asgari, A. and Bagheripour, M.H. Earthquake

response analysis of soil layers using HFTD approach",

The GeoShanghai 2010 International Conference,

Shanghai, China (2010).

34. Bazrafshan Moghaddam, A. and Bagheripour, M.H.

Ground response analysis using non-recursive matrix

implementation of hybrid frequency-time domain

(HFTD) approach", Scientia Iranica, 18, pp. 1188-

1197 (2011).

35. Tripe, R., Kontoe, S., andWong, T. Slope topography

eects on ground motion in the presence of deep soil

layers", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 50, pp. 72-84

(2013).

36. Desai, C.S. and Kundu, T., Introductory Finite Element

Method, CRC Press (2001).

37. Brinkgreve, R. Plaxis: nite element code for soil and

rock analyses: 2D-Version 8:[user's guide]", Balkema

(2002).

38. Lysmer, J. and Kuhlemeyer, R.L. Finite dynamic

model for innite media", Journal of Engineering

Mechanics Division, 95, pp. 859-878 (1969).

39. Bouchon, M. Eect of topography on surface motion",

Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 63, pp. 615-632 (1973).

40. Pagliaroli, A., Lanzo, G., and D'Elia, B. Numerical

evaluation of topographic eects at the Nicastro ridge

in Southern Italy", J. Earthquake Eng., 15, pp. 404-

432 (2011).

Transactions on Civil Engineering (A)

May and June 2018Pages 1083-1093