Non-linear seismic ground response analysis considering two-dimensional topographic irregularities

Document Type : Article

Authors

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

In the event of an earthquake, local site conditions such as soil characteristics, dimension of topographic irregularities, seismic bedrock depth, etc. and also characteristics of incident wave have important effects on seismic ground response. In this study, Finite Element Method (FEM) coupled to Viscous Boundaries is used to evaluate the effect of empty two-dimensional valleys on amplification or attenuation of seismic waves. Parametric studies carry out and the effects of dimension of the topography, frequency of the incident wave and bedrock depth on the seismic ground response are considered using non-linear method in a time domain analysis. Results are shown by means of horizontal and vertical amplification ratio in valley span and its surrounding area. It is concluded that displacement variation on ground surface due to topographical effects is a considerable factor to select a site location or design structures in the valley mount and its surrounding area.

Keywords

Main Subjects


References
1. Kramer, S.L. Geotechnical earthquake engineering",
In Prentice-Hall International Series in Civil Engineering
and Engineering Mechanics, Prentice-Hall,
New Jersey (1996).
2. Idriss, I. Finite element analysis for the seismic
response of earth banks", Journal of Soil Mechanics
& Foundations Div, 94, pp. 617-636 (1968).
3. Celebi, M. Topographical and geological ampli cations
determined from strong-motion and aftershock
records of the 3 March 1985 Chile earthquake", Bull.
Seismol. Soc. Am., 77, pp. 1147-1167 (1987).
4. Celebi, M. Topographical and geological ampli -
cation: case studies and engineering implications",
Struct. Saf., 10, pp. 199-217 (1991).
5. Bouchon, M. and Barker, J.S. Seismic response of
a hill: the example of Tarzana, California", Bull.
Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, pp. 66-72 (1996).
6. Celebi, M. Northridge (California) earthquake:
unique ground motions and resulting spectral and site
e ects", International Conference on Seismic Zonation,
pp. 988-995 (1996).
1092 N. Soltani and M.H. Bagheripour/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1083{1093
7. Gazetas, G., Kallou, P., and Psarropoulos, P. Topography
and soil e ects in the MS 5.9 Parnitha (Athens)
earthquake: the case of Adames", Nat. Hazards., 27,
pp. 133-169 (2002).
8. Marsan, P., Milana, G., Pugliese, A., and Sano',
T. Local ampli cation e ects recorded by a local
strong motion network during the 1997 Umbria-
Marche Earthquake", Proc. 12th World Conference on
Earthquake Engineering, Aukland New Zealand, Paper
No. 1046 (2000).
9. Soltani, N. and Bagheripour, M.H. Seismic wave
scatter study in valleys using coupled 2D nite element
approach and absorbing boundaries", Scientia Iranica,
24, pp. 110-120 (2017).
10. Di Fiore, V. Seismic site ampli cation induced by topographic
irregularity: Results of a numerical analysis
on 2D synthetic models", Eng. Geol., 114, pp. 109-115
(2010).
11. Kham, M., Semblat, J.F., and Bouden-Romdhane,
N. Ampli cation of seismic ground motion in the
Tunis basin: Numerical BEM simulations vs experimental
evidences", Engineering Geology, 154, pp. 80-
86 (2013).
12. Nguyen, K.V. and Gatmiri, B. Evaluation of seismic
ground motion induced by topographic irregularity",
Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 27, pp. 183-188 (2007).
13. He, CH. H., Wang, J.T., Zhang, CH.H., and Jin,
F. Simulation of broadband seismic ground motions
at dam canyons by using a deterministic numerical
approach", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 76, pp. 136-
144 (2015).
14. Bouckovalas, G.D. and Papadimitriou, A.G. Numerical
evaluation of slope topography e ects on seismic
ground motion", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 25, pp.
547-558 (2005).
15. Zhao, C. and Valliappan, S. Incident P and SV wave
scattering e ects under di erent canyon topographic
and geological conditions", Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods
Geomech., 17, pp. 73-94 (1993).
16. Duzgun, O.A. and Budak, A. A study on soilstructure
interaction analysis in canyon-shaped topographies",
Sadhana., Indian Academy of Sciences.,
35, pp. 255-277 (2010).
17. Kamalian, M., Jafari, M.K., Sohrabi-bidar, A.,
Razmkhah, A., and Gatmiri, B. Time-domain twodimensional
site response analysis of non-homogeneous
topographic structures by a hybrid BE/FE method",
Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 26, pp. 753-765 (2006).
18. Gatmiri, B., Arson, C., and Nguyen, K. Seismic site
e ects by an optimized 2D BE/FE method I. Theory,
numerical optimization and application to topographical
irregularities", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 28, pp.
632-645 (2008).
19. Lo Presti, D., and Ferrini, M., Special Issue of the
Italian Geotechnical Review: The Seismic Response
Analysis at Castelnouvo Garfagnana (2002).
20. Yoshida, N., Seismic Ground Response Analysis,
Springer (2015).
21. Bagheripour, M.H. and Marandi, S.M. A Numerical
model for unbounded soil domain in earthquake SSI
analysis using periodic in nite elements", Int. J. Civ.
Eng., 3, pp. 96-111 (2005).
22. Bagheripour, M.H., Rahgozar, R., and Malekinejad,
M. Ecient analysis of SSI problems using in nite
elements and wavelet theory", Geomech. Eng., 2(4),
pp. 229-252 (2010).
23. Nimtaj, A. and Bagheripour, M.H. Non-linear seismic
response analysis of the layered soil deposit using
hybrid frequency-time domain (HFTD) approach",
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering,
17, pp. 1039-1056 (2013).
24. Kara, H.F. and Trifunac, M.D. Two-dimensional
earthquake vibrations in sedimentary basins-SH
waves", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 63, pp. 69-82
(2014).
25. Ghaemian, M. and Sohrabi-Gilani, M. Seismic responses
of arch dams due to non-uniform ground
motions", Scientia Iranica, 19, pp. 1431-1436 (2012).
26. Khanbabazadeh, H. and Iyisan, R. A numerical study
on the 2D behavior of the single and layered clayey
basins", Bull Earthquake Eng., 12, pp. 1515-1536
(2014).
27. Javdanian, H., Jafarian, Y., and Haddad, A. Predicting
damping ratio of ne-grained soils using soft computing
methodology", Arabian Journal of Geosciences,
8, pp. 3959-3969 (2015).
28. Jafarian, Y., Haddad, A., and Javdanian, H. Predictive
model for normalized shear modulus of cohesive
soils", Acta Geodynamica et Geomaterialia, 11, pp. 89-
100 (2014).
29. Soltani, N. and Bagheripour, M.H. Boundary simulation
with dampers using nite element method in nonlinear
seismic ground response analysis", Geodynamics
Research International Bulletin, 3, pp. 16-26 (2015).
30. Lermo, J. and Chavez-Garca, F.J. Site e ect evaluation
using spectral ratios with only one station", Bull.
Seismol. Soc. Am., 83, pp. 1574-1594 (1993).
31. LeBrun, B., Hatzfeld, D., Bard, P., and Bouchon,
M. Experimental study of the ground motion on a
large scale topographic hill at Kitherion (Greece)", J.
Seismolog., 3, pp. 1-15 (1999).
32. Fu, L.Y. Rough surface scattering: comparison of
various approximation theories for 2D SH waves", Bull.
Seismol. Soc. Am., 95, pp. 646-663 (2005).
N. Soltani and M.H. Bagheripour/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1083{1093 1093
33. Asgari, A. and Bagheripour, M.H. Earthquake
response analysis of soil layers using HFTD approach",
The GeoShanghai 2010 International Conference,
Shanghai, China (2010).
34. Bazrafshan Moghaddam, A. and Bagheripour, M.H.
Ground response analysis using non-recursive matrix
implementation of hybrid frequency-time domain
(HFTD) approach", Scientia Iranica, 18, pp. 1188-
1197 (2011).
35. Tripe, R., Kontoe, S., andWong, T. Slope topography
e ects on ground motion in the presence of deep soil
layers", Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 50, pp. 72-84
(2013).
36. Desai, C.S. and Kundu, T., Introductory Finite Element
Method, CRC Press (2001).
37. Brinkgreve, R. Plaxis: nite element code for soil and
rock analyses: 2D-Version 8:[user's guide]", Balkema
(2002).
38. Lysmer, J. and Kuhlemeyer, R.L. Finite dynamic
model for in nite media", Journal of Engineering
Mechanics Division, 95, pp. 859-878 (1969).
39. Bouchon, M. E ect of topography on surface motion",
Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 63, pp. 615-632 (1973).
40. Pagliaroli, A., Lanzo, G., and D'Elia, B. Numerical
evaluation of topographic e ects at the Nicastro ridge
in Southern Italy", J. Earthquake Eng., 15, pp. 404-
432 (2011).