Near-Fault Effects on RC Buildings’ Demand in Linear and Nonlinear Analyses

Document Type: Article


Dept. of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University, No. 43, Dr. Mofatteh Ave., Tehran 15719 - 14911, Iran


Strong ground motions of near-fault earthquakes are mostly generated by forward-directivity effects. Forward-directivity effects develop energetic pulses particularly in horizontal velocity history of fault-normal component. The narrow-band nature of the pulses results in revealing at least two peaks on the response spectra and also increasing seismic demand especially for mid-rise and high-rise buildings. Iranian seismic code (IS 2800-14) presents the coefficient N, for considering near-fault effects. It seems that the N is not efficient for designing in near-fault zone. The accurate near-fault demands can be determined by using nonlinear response history analyses. In the present paper, two 3-D reinforced concrete framed structures (RC buildings) are designed according to ACI 2014 and IS 2800-14. Then, the demands are estimated by employing linear response history analysis (LRHA) and also nonlinear response history analysis (NRHA) under an ensemble of 11 near-fault ground motions. The results reveal that the design spectrum of IS 2800-14 is incompatible with near-fault spectra and underestimates demands in the long periods range. Further, implementation of LRHA using response modification factor (Ru) and deflection amplification factor (Cd) leads to insufficient inter-story drift ratios. Finally, the influence of enhancing ductility is studied by determining ductility reduction factors for near-fault records.


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