Document Type : Article

**Authors**

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, P.O. Box 416, Iran

**Abstract**

A procedure for updating the Park-Ang damage index of reinforced concrete building under near-fault ground motion is proposed. Rather than developing a new damage model, a correction term is added to the existing damage model within the Bayesian framework. The correction term is described as a linear function of the variation of stiffness of structures which is a more consistent indicator in predicting the level of damage. The Bayesian method is an effective approach when new data become available. The reinforced concrete building damage data during past near-fault pulse-like earthquakes were used in updating the damage model. The proposed damage index is conceptually simple and realistic.

**Keywords**

**Main Subjects**

References

1. Paal, S., Jeon, J., Brilakis, I. and DesRoches, R. Automated damage index estimation of reinforced concrete columns for post-earthquake evaluations", Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(9), pp. 1-13 (2015).

2. Krawinkler, H. and Zohrei, M. Cumulative damage in steel structures subjected to earthquake ground

motion", Computers and Structures, 16(1-4), pp. 531-

541 (1983).

3. Park, Y.J. and Ang, A.H. Mechanistic seismic damage

model for reinforced concrete", Journal of Structural

Engineering, ASCE, 111(4), pp. 722-739 (1985).

4. Mohammadjalal, M.A. and Estekanchi, H.E. Application

of damage spectra as seismic intensity measures

in endurance time method for steel moment-resisting

frames", Scientia Iranica, 24(1), pp. 53-64 (2017).

5. Cao, V.V. and Ronagh, H.R. Correlation between

seismic parameters of far-fault motions and damage

indices of low-rise reinforced concrete frames", Soil

Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 66(1), pp.

102-112 (2014).

6. Golafshani, A.A., Tabeshpour, M.R., and Bakhshi,

A. Vulnerability and damage analysis of existing

buildings", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 6(1-

2), pp. 85-100 (2005).

7. Colombo, A. and Negro, P. A damage index of generalised

applicability", Engineering Structures, 27(8),

pp. 1164-1174 (2005).

8. Cao, V.V., Ronagh, H.R., Ashraf, M., and Baji, H. A

new damage index for reinforced concrete structures",

Earthquakes and Structures, 6(6), pp. 581-609 (2014).

9. Banon, H. and Veneziano, D. Seismic safety of reinforced

concrete members and structures", Earthquake

Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 10(2), pp. 179-

193 (1982).

10. Banon, H., Biggs, J.M., and Irvine, H.M. Seismic

damage in reinforced concrete frames", Journal of the

Structural Division, 107(9), pp. 1713-1729 (1981).

11. Roufaiel, M.S.L. and Meyer, C. Analytical modelling

of hysteretic behavior of R/C frames", Journal of the

Structural Engineering, 113(3), pp. 429-444 (1987).

12. Ghobarah, A., Abou-Elfath, H. and Biddah, A. Response

base damage assessment of structures", Earthquake

Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 28(1),

pp. 79-104 (1999).

K. Yazdannejad and A. Yazdani/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 606{616 615

13. Powell, G.H. and Allahabadi, R. Seismic damage

prediction by deterministic methods: Concepts and

procedures", Earthquake Engineering and Structural

Dynamics, 16(5), pp. 719-734 (1988).

14. Fajfar, P. Equivalent ductility factors, taking into

account low-cycle fatigue", Earthquake Engineering

and Structural Dynamics, 21(10), pp. 837-848 (1992).

15. Padilla, D. and Rodriguez, M. A damage index for

the seismic analysis of reinforced concrete members",

Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 13(3), pp. 364-383

(2009).

16. Karantoni, F.V., Fardis, M.N., Vintzeleou, E., and

Harisis, A. Eectiveness of seismic strengthening

measures", IABSE Symposium on Structural Preservation

of the Architectural Heritage, 70, pp. 548-556

(1993).

17. Ghobarah, A. and Aly, N.M. Seismic reliability assessment

of existing reinforced concrete buildings",

Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 2(4), pp. 569-592

(1998).

18. Bozorgnia, Y. and Bertero, V.V. Improved shaking

and damage parameters for post-earthquake applications",

Proceedings, SMIP01 Seminar on Utilization

of Strong-Motion Data, Los Angeles, pp. 1-22 (2001).

19. Yuksel, E. and Surmeli, M. Failure analysis of onestory

precast structures for near-fault and far-fault

strong ground motions", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering,

8(4), pp. 937-953 (2010).

20. Bassam, A., Iranmanesh, A., and Ansari, F. A simple

quantitative approach for post earthquake damage

assessment of

exure dominant reinforced concrete

bridges", Journal of Engineering Structures, 33(12),

pp. 3218-3225 (2011).

21. Ghosh, S., Datta, D., and Katakdhond, A.A. Estimation

of the Park-Ang damage index for planar multistorey

frames using equivalent single-degree systems",

Journal of Engineering Structures, 33(9), pp. 2509-

2524 (2011).

22. Arjomandi, K., Estekanchi, H., and Vafai, A. Correlation

between structural performance levels and damage

indices in steel frames subjected to earthquakes",

Scientia Iranica, 16(2), pp. 147-155 (2009).

23. Zhang, R. and Mahadevan, S. Model uncertainty

and Bayesian updating in reliability-based inspection",

Structural Safety, 22(2), pp. 145-160 (2000).

24. Wang, M. and Takada, T. A Bayesian framework for

prediction of seismic ground motion", Bulletin of the

Seismological Society of America, 99(4), pp. 2348-2364

(2009).

25. Assareh, H., Noorossana, R., Mohammadi, M., and

Mengersen, K. Bayesian multiple change-point estimation

of Poisson rates in control charts", Scientia

Iranica, 23(1), pp. 316-329 (2016).

26. Zhu, L. Probabilistic drift capacity models for reinforced

concrete columns", Master Thesis, University of

British Columbia (2005).

27. O'Hagan, A., Rudas, T., Gasparini, M., Rogantin, M.,

Sobel, M., and Goldreich, O. The Bayesian approach

to statistics", Handbook of Probability: Theory and

Applications, Part II: Probability Theory in Research

Methodology (2008).

28. Iervolino, I. and Cornell, C.A. Probability of occurrence

of velocity pulses in near-source ground motions",

Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America,

98(5), pp. 2262-2277 (2008).

29. Bray, J.D., Rodriguez, A. and Gillie J.L. Design

ground motions near active faults", Bulletin of the New

Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 42(1),

pp. 1-8 (2009).

30. Gardoni, P. Probabilistic models and fragility estimates

for bridge components and systems", Ph.D.

Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental

Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (2002).

31. Gardoni, P., Der Kiureghian, A. and Mosalam, K.M.

Probabilistic capacity models and fragility estimates

for reinforced concrete columns based on experimental

observations", Journal of Engineering Mechanics,

128(10), pp. 1024-1038 (2002).

32. Dipasquale, E. and Cakmak, A.S. On the relation

between local and global damage indices", Technical

Report NCEER-89-0034, State University of New York

at Bualo (1989).

33. Otani, S., Cheung, V.W.T., and Lai, S.S. Behaviour

and analytical models of reinforced concrete

columns under biaxial earthquake loads", Proceedings,

3rd Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering,

Montreal, P.Q., pp. 1141-1168 (1979).

34. Sozen, M.A. Review of earthquake response of reinforced

concrete buildings with a view to drift control",

State-of-the-Art in Earthquake Engineering, Turkish

National Committee on Earthquake Engineering Istanbul,

Turkey, pp. 383-418 (1981).

35. Dipasquale, E. and Cakmak, A.S. Detection and

assessment of seismic structural damage", Technical

Report NCEER-87-0015, State University of New York

at Bualo (1987).

36. Sadeghi, K. Energy based structural damage index

based on nonlinear numerical simulation of structures

subjected to oriented lateral cyclic loading", International

Journal of Civil Engineering, 9(3), pp. 155-164

(2011).

37. Kunnath, S.K. and Jenne, C. Seismic damage assessment

of inelastic R.C structures", Proceedings of the

5th US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering

(1994).

38. Park, Y.J., Reinhorn, A., and Kunnath, S.K.

Inelastic damage analysis of reinforced concrete

wall frame structures", Report NCEER 87 0008,

NCEER/SUNY/Bualo (1987).

39. Van de Lindt, J. Damage-based seismic reliability

concept for wood frame structures", Journal of Structural

Engineering, ASCE, 131(4), pp. 668-675 (2005).

616 K. Yazdannejad and A. Yazdani/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 606{616

40. Karamodin, A. Irani, F., and Baghban, A. Eectiveness

of a fuzzy controller on the damage index

of nonlinear benchmark buildings", Scientia Iranica,

19(1), pp. 1-10 (2012).

41. Standard No. 2800-5, Iranian Code of Practice for

Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings, 4rd Revision,

Building and Housing Research Center, Iran (2014) (In

Persian).

42. Iranian National Building Codes Part 9- design and

construction of R.C. buildings", Building and Housing

Research Center, Iran (2013) (In Persian).

43. Kunnath, S.K., Reinhorn, A.M. and Lobo, R.F.

IDARC Version 7: A program for the inelastic

damage analysis of RC structures", Technical Report,

National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research,

State University of New York, Bualo, NY (2010).

44. Liel, A. and Champion, C. The eect of near-fault

directivity on building seismic collapse risk", Earthquake

Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 41(10),

pp. 1391-1409 (2012).

45. MacRae, G.A., Morrow, D.V., and Roeder, C.W.

Near-fault ground motion eects on simple structures",

Journal of Structural Engineering, 127(9), pp.

996-1004 (2001).

46. Akkar, S., Yazgan, U., and Gulkan, P. Drift estimates

in frame buildings subjected to near-fault ground

motions", Journal of Structural Engineering, 131(7),

pp. 1014-1024 (2005).

47. Tothong, P. and Cornell, C.A. Structural performance

assessment under near-source pulse-like ground

motions using advanced ground motion intensity measures",

Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics,

37(7), pp. 1013-1037 (2008).

48. Baker, J.W. and Cornell, C.A. Vector-valued intensity

measures for pulse-like near-fault ground motions",

Engineering Structures, 30(4), pp. 1048-1057

(2008).

49. Blakeborough, A., Merriman, P.A., and Williams,

M.S. The Northridge, California earthquake of 17

January 1994: A eld Report By EEFIT", Earthquake

Engineering Field Investigation Team, London, p. 196

(1997).

50. Tsai, K.C., Hsiao, Ch.P., and Bruneau, M. Overview

of building damage in 921 Chi-Chi earthquake", Earthquake

Engineering and Engineering Seismology, 2(1),

pp. 93-108 (2000).

51. Okada, T. Needs to evaluate real seismic performance

of buildings- lessons from the 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu

earthquake", The EERC-CUREe Symposium in Honor

of Vitelmo V. Bertero, Berkeley, California (1997).

52. Liel, A.B. and Lynch, K.P. Vulnerability of reinforced

concrete frame buildings and their occupants in the

2009 L'Aquila, Italy earthquake", Natural Hazards

Review, 13(1), pp. 11-23 (2012).

53. Kam, W.Y., Pampanin, S., and Elwood, K. Seismic

performance of reinforced concrete buildings in the

22 February Christchurch (Lyttelton) earthquake",

Bulletin of The New Zealand Society For Earthquake

Engineering, 44(4), pp. 239-278 (2011).

54. He, Y.B., Deng, P., Zhang, Ch., and Shen, P.Sh., The

Modication on the Discreteness of Park-Ang Damage

Index Based on Bayesian Methodology, Harbin Institute

of Technology, 21(1), pp. 15-38 (2014).

Transactions on Civil Engineering (A)

March and April 2018Pages 606-616