Specimen Preparation Methods for Artificially Cemented Sand in Simple Shear and Hollow Cylinder Apparatuses

Document Type : Article

Authors

1 Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran , P.O. Box 1591634311, Iran.

2 Dept. of Engineering, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University , Tehran, P.O. Box 33147- 67653 , Iran

3 Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran , P.O. Box 1591634311, Iran

Abstract

Portland cement can be mixed with sand to improve its mechanical characteristics. Considering the inherent anisotropy of most sands, it is not clear whether the added cement shall contribute to equal increases of strength and stiffness in vertical and horizontal directions or not. Literature review reveals that all the previous experimental studies on the cement-treated soil topics are limited to conventional triaxial device test results. The effect of cement addition to clean sand in more sophisticated stress-path controlled devices like "Simple Shear Apparatus" (SSA) and "Hollow Cylinder Apparatus" (HCA) simulating more realistic loading conditions, such as earthquake, have not been investigated yet. This paper presents innovative methods for testing artificially cemented sands through making modifications to the loading platens, specimen molds and specimen preparation methods of SSA and HCA. Undrained tests under different monotonic stress paths were carried out on different mixtures of Portland cement with clean sand to investigate the effect of principal stress rotations. The test results revealed that the cement mixture reduces the anisotropy, while it improves the mixture mechanical properties compared to the compacted uncemented sand.

Keywords

Main Subjects


References
1.Dupas,  J.M.  and  Pecker,  A.  Static  and  dynamicproperties  of  sand-cement",J.  Geotech.  Engrg.  Div.ASCE,105(GT3), pp. 419-436 (1979).2.Haeri,   S.M.,   Hosseini,   S.M.  and  Toll,   D.G.  Thebehavior  of  an  arti cially  cemented  sandy  gravel",Geotechnical&Geological  Engineering,  Springer,23,pp. 537-560 (2005a).3.Haeri,  S.M.,  Hamidi,  A.  and  Tabatabaee,  N.  Thee ect of gypsum cementation on the mechanical behav-ior  of  gravelly  sands",Geotechnical  Testing  Journal,28(4), pp. 1-11 (2005b).4.Hamidi, A. and Haeri, S.M. Sti ness and deformationcharacteristics of a cemented gravely sand",Interna-tional Journal of  Civil Engineering,6(3), pp. 159-173(2008).5.Schnaid, F., Prietto, P.D.M. and Consoli, N.C. Char-acterization of cemented sand in triaxial compression",J.  Geotech.  And  Geoenv.  Engng.  ASCE,127(10), pp.857-868 (2001).6.Consoli,   N.C.,   Prietto,   P.D.M.  and  Ulbrich,   L.A.In uence of  ber and cement addition on behavior ofsandy  soil",J.  Geotech.  And  Geoenv.  Engng.  ASCE,124(12), pp. 1211-1214 (1998).7.Consoli,  N.C.,  Rotta,  G.V.  and  Prietto,  P.D.M.  In- uence of curing under stress on the triaxial responseof  cemented  soils",Geotechnique,50(1),  pp.  99-105(2000).8.Consoli,   N.C.,   Rotta,   G.V.   and   Prietto,   P.D.M.Yielding-compressibility-strength  relationship  for  anarti cially cemented soil cured under stress",Geotech-nique,56(5), pp. 69-72 (2006).
K. Fakharian et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 22{32319.Consoli, N.C., Foppa, D., Festugato, L. and Heineck,K.S.  Key  parameters  for  strength  control  of  arti -cially cemented soils",J. Geotech. and Geoenv. Engng.ASCE,133(2), pp. 197-205 (2007).10.Consoli, N.C., Cruz, R.C., Floss, M.F. and Festugato,L.  Parameters  controlling  tensile  and  compressivestrength  of  arti cially  cemented  sand",J.  Geotech.And Geoenv. Engrg,136(5), pp. 759-763 (2010).11.Rotta,  G.V.,  Consoli,  N.C.,  Prietto,  P.D.M.,  Coop,M.R. and Graham, J. Isotropic yielding in an arti -cially cemented soil cured under stress",Geotechnique,53(5), pp. 493-501 (2003).12.Malandraki,   V.  and  Toll,   D.G.  Triaxial  tests  onweakly  bonded  soil  with  changes  in  stress  path",J.Geotech. and Geoenv. Engng. ASCE,127(3), pp. 282-291 (2001).13.Boulanger,   R.W.,   Chan,   C.K.,   Seed,   H.B.,   Seed,R.B. and Sousa, J.B. A low-compliance bi-directionalcyclic  simple  shear  apparatus",Geotechnical  TestingJournal,16(1), pp. 36-45 (1993).14.Vaid,  Y.P.  and  Finn,  W.D.L.  Static  shear  and  liq-uefaction potential",J.  Geotech.  Engrg.  Div.,  ASCE,105(10), pp. 1233-1246 (1979).15.Dyvik,  R.,  Berre,  T.,  Lacasse,  S.  and  Raadim,  B.Comparison of truly undrained and constant volumedirect simple shear tests",Geotechnique,37(1), pp. 3-10 (1987).16.Ishihara,  K.  and  Yamazaki,  F.  Cyclic  simple  sheartests on saturated sand in multi-directional loading",Soils and Foundations,20(1), pp. 45-59 (1980).17.Vaid,  Y.P.,  Sayao,  A.,  Hou,  E.  and  Negussey,  D.Generalized stress-path-dependent soil behavior witha  new  hollow  cylinder  torsional  apparatus",Can.Geotech. J.,27, pp. 601-616 (1990).18.Yoshimine,  M.,  Ishihara,  K. and Vargas,  W. E ectsof principal stress direction and intermediate principalstress on undrained shear behavior of sand",Soils andFoundations,38(3), pp. 179-188 (1998).19.Yang,   Z.X.,   Li,   X.S.   and   Yang,   J.   Undrainedanisotropy  and  rotational  shear  in  granular  soil",Geotechnique,57(4), pp. 371-384 (2007).20.Bahadori,  H.,  Ghalandarzadeh,  A.  and  Towhata,  I.E ect of non plastic silt on the anisotropic behaviorof  sand",Soils  and  Foundations,48(4),  pp.  531-545(2008).21.Kumruzzaman, Md. and Yin, J.H. In uences of prin-cipal stress direction and intermediate principle stresson  the  stress-strain-strength  behaviour  of  completelydecomposed granite",Can.  Geotech.  J.,47,  pp. 164-179 (2010).22.Sivathayalan, S., Manmatharajan, V. and Logeswaran,P. Hollow cylinder torsional shear tests to evaluate therole of principal stress directions on cyclic resistance",CGS, Geotechnical Conference, Pan-Am (2011).23.Baziar, M.H. and Shara , H. Assessment of silty sandliquefaction  potential  using  hollow  torsional  tests  -an energy approach",Soil  Dynamics  and  EarthquakeEngineering,31(7), pp. 857-865 (July, 2011).24.Baziar, M.H., Shahnazaria, H. and Shara , H. A lab-oratory study on the pore Pressure generation modelfor Firouzkooh silty sands using hollow torsional tests",International  Journal  of  Civil  Engineering,9(2),  pp.126-134 (June, 2011).25.Jafarian,  Y.,  Towhata, I.,  Baziar,  M.H.,  Noorzad,  A.and Bahmanpoor, A. Strain energy based evaluationof  liquefaction  and  residual  pore  water  pressure  insands  using  cyclic  torsional  shear  experiments",SoilDynamics and Earthquake Engineering,35, pp. 13-28(2012).26.Keyhani, R. and Haeri, S.M. Evaluation of the e ectof anisotropic consolidation and principle stress rota-tion  on  undarined  behavior  of  silty  sands",ScientiaIranica, Transactions:  A,20(6), pp. 1637-1653 (2013).27.Boulanger, R.W. and Seed, R.B. Liquefaction of sandunder bidirectional monotonic and cyclic loading",J.of Geotechnical Engrg., ASCE, pp. 870-878 (1995).28.Nayeri,   A.  and  Fakharian,   K.  Study  on  pulloutbehavior of uniaxial HDPE geogrids under monotonicand cyclic loads",International Journal of Civil Engi-neering,7(4), pp. 211-223 (2009).29.Movahed,   V.,   Shara ,   H.,   Baziar,   M.  and  Shah-nazari, H. Comparison of strain controlled and stresscontrolled  tests  in  evaluation  of   nes  content  e ecton  liquefaction  of  sands-an  energy  approach",Geo-Frontiers, pp. 1804-1814 (2011).30.Ismail,  M.A.,  Joer,  H.A. and Randolph,  M.F. Sam-ple  Preparation  technique  for  arti cially  cementedsoils",Geotechnical  Testing  Journal,23(2),  pp.  171-177 (2000).31.Ladd,  R.S.  Preparing  test  specimens  using  undercompaction",Geotechnical  Testing  Journal,1(1),  pp.16-23 (1978).32.Eghbali,  A.H. and Fakharian,  K. E ect of principalstress rotation in cement-treated sands using triaxialand simple shear tests",International Journal of CivilEngineering,  Transaction  B:  Geotechnical  Engineer-ing,12(1), pp. 1-14 (2014).33.Eghbali,  A.H.  E ect  of  cement  addition  on  silicasand behavior under di erent static and dynamic stresspaths", Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Civil and EnvironmentEngineering,   AmirKabir   University   of   Technology,Tehran, Iran (2012) (In Persian).34.Beer, F.P. and Johnston, E.R.,Mechanics of Materials,Chapter 2, McGraw-Hill (1992).