Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Research Center, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran 14965/161, Iran
Periodontics Department, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Titanium granules can be used as bone graft substitute in the field of orthopaedic and periodontal surgery but their bone bonding ability needs to be promoted. Nanostructured materials have shown to enhance bioactivity and overall bioperformance of biomaterials. In the present study, the effects of time and voltage of anodic oxidation process is investigated in order to forms TiO2 nanostructures with optimized morphology on the surface of porous titanium granules. The anodized granules are subsequently heat treated at 450 C for 1 h. MG63 osteoblast like cell is used to evaluate cell attachment and viability on the surfaces of anodized and annealed granules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, respectively. The results of anodizing process show TiO2 nanostructures are constructed at the voltage of 60 V for 3 h. The X-ray diffraction results show improved crystallinity of TiO2 nanostructures on the surface of annealed anodized granule surfaces after the annealing process. Cell culture experiments show improved cell spreading and viability on the surface of annealed anodized granules compared to anodized sample. It is concluded that annealed anodized granules could have a potential for orthopaedic and periodontal applications as bone graft substitutes.