An experimental investigation of the effect of using non-Newtonian nanofluid-graphene oxide/aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-on the performance of direct absorption solar collector

Document Type : Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Research Laboratory of Polymer, Department of Organic and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz,Iran


To improve the performance of direct absorption solar collectors (DASCs), high photo-thermal potential in nanofluids have always been of interest to researchers. Therefore, the present study mainly aimed to use graphene oxide nanofluids due to their high optical absorption capability and excellent dispersion stability. The novelty of this study is the investigation of the special effects of the optical properties of graphene oxide and the thermal potential of non-Newtonian shear-thinning nanofluids together to improve the photo-thermal conversion performance of the DASC model. For this purpose, Non-Newtonian and Newtonian nanofluids, involving graphene oxide nanoparticles, dispersed in sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and deionized water as base fluid, respectively, were prepared and experimentally tested. The flow rate and weight percentage along with incident radiation have been selected as test parameters for estimating the efficiency of the collector. The results showed that the efficiency improvement by increasing the weight percentage of nanoparticles in both nanofluids. Furthermore, by changing the base fluid from Newtonian to non-Newtonian, the reduction in efficiency at 0.01wt% is by (9.4-15.63) % and at 0.03wt% is by (19.84-26.46) %. Additionally, graphene oxide nanofluid sample (S3) was found appropriate for the designed DASC model due to its optimum efficiency and temperature rise rate.


1. Modest, M.F., Radiative Heat Transfer, The Universityof California at Merced, 3th Edn, Academic Press is animprint of Elsevier (2013).2. Timofeeva, E.V., Nanouids for Heat Transfer Potentialand Engineering Strategies, Energy SystemsDivision, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, ILUSA, 19, pp. 435{446 (2011).3. Due, J.A. and Beckman, W.A., Solar Engineering ofThermal Processes, Published by John Wiley & Sons,Inc., Hoboken (2013).4. Li, Z.X. and Khaled, U., Al-Rashed, A.A., Goodarzi,M., Sarafraz, M.M., and Meer, R. Heat transfer evaluationof a micro heat exchanger cooling with sphericalcarbon-acetone nano
uid", International Journal ofHeat and Mass Transfer, 149, pp. 119{124 (2020).5. Sheikholeslami, M., Rezaeianjouybari, B., Darzi, M.,Shafee, A., Li, Z., and Nguyen, T.K. Applicationof nano-refrigerant for boiling heat transfer enhancementemploying an experimental study", InternationalJournal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 141, pp. 974{980(2019).6. Elsheikh, A.H., Sharshir, S.W., Mostafa, M.E., Essa,F.A., and Ahmed Ali, M.K. Applications of nano
uidsin solar energy: A review of recent advances",Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82(3), pp.3483{3502 (2018).7. Sharma, K. and Kundan, L. Nanouid BasedConcentratingParabolic Solar Collector (NBCPSC): Anew alternative", International Journal of Research inMechanical Engineering & Technology, 4(2), pp. 146{152 (2014).8. Xuan, Y. and Li, Q. Heat transfer enhancement ofnanouids", International Journal of Heat and FluidFlow, 21(1), pp. 58{6 (2000).9. Standard, A. Standard tables for reference solarspectral irradiances: Direct normal and hemisphericalon 37 tilted surface", Amer. Society for Testing Matls.,West Conshocken PA, USA, G173 (2007).10. Mallah, A.R., Mohd Zubir, M.N., Alawi, O.A., Newaz,K.S., and Badry, A.B. Plasmonic nano
uids for highphotothermal conversion eciency in direct absorptionsolar collectors: Fundamentals and applications", SolarEnergy Materials and Solar Cells, 201, pp. 1{31(2019).11. Sadeghinezhad, E., Mehrali, M., Saidur, R., Mehrali,Me. Latibari, S.T., Akhiani, A., and Metselaar, H.S.C.A comprehensive review on graphene nanouids:Recent research, development and applications", EnergyConversion and Management, 111, pp. 466{487(2016).1296 V. Sadeghi et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions B: Mechanical Engineering 28 (2021) 1284{129712. Minardi, J.E. and Chuang, H.N. Performance of ablack" liquid at-plate solar collector", Solar Energy,17, pp. 179{183 (1975).13. Luo, Z., Wang, C., Wei, W., Xiao, G., and Ni,M. Performance improvement of a nanouid solarcollector based on direct absorption collection (DAC)concepts", International Journal of Heat and MassTransfer, 75, pp. 262{271 (2014).14. Liu, J., Ye, Z., Zhang, L., Fang, X., and Zhang, Z.A combined numerical and experimental study ongraphene/ionic liquid nanouid based direct absorptionsolar collector", Solar Energy Materials & SolarCells, 136, pp. 177{186 (2015).15. Vakili, M., Hosseinalipour, S.M., Delfani, S., Khosrojerdi,S., and Karami, M. Experimental investigationof graphene nanoplatelets nanouid-based volumetricsolar collector for domestic hot water systems", SolarEnergy, 131, pp. 119{130 (2016).16. Vakili, M., Hosseinalipour, S.M., Delfani, S., andKhosrojerdi, S. Photo- thermal properties of graphenenanoplatelets nanouid for low-temperature direct absorptionsolar collectors", Solar Energy Materials &Solar Cells, 152, pp. 187{191 (2016).17. Khosrojerdi, S., Lavasani, A.M., and Vakili, M. Experimentalstudy of photo-thermal speci cations andstability of graphene oxide nanoplatelets nanouid asworking uid for low-temperature Direct AbsorptionSolar Collectors (DASCs)", Solar Energy Materials &Solar Cells, 164, pp. 32{39 (2017).18. Chen, L., Liu, J., Fang, X., and Zhang, Z. Reducedgraphene oxide dispersed nanouids with improvedphoto-thermal conversion performance for direct absorptionsolar collectors", Solar Energy Materials &Solar Cells, 163, pp. 125{133 (2017).19. Ma, X., Liua, Y., Liua, H., Zhanga, L., Xua, B.,and Xiaob, F. Fabrication of novel slurry containinggraphene oxide-modi ed microencapsulated phasechange material for direct absorption solar collector",Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 188, pp. 73{80(2018).20. Campos, C., Vasco, D., Angulo, C., Burdiles, P.A.,Cardemilc, J., and Palzaa, H. About the relevanceof particle shape and graphene oxide on the behaviorof direct absorption solar collectors using metal basednano
uids under di erent radiation intensities", EnergyConversion and Management, 181, pp. 247{257(2019).21. Xu, X., Xu, C., Liu, J., Fang, X., and Zhang,Z. A direct absorption solar collector based on awater-ethylene glycol based nanouid with anti-freezeproperty and ecellent dispersion stability", RenewableEnergy, 133, pp. 760{769 (2019).22. Gorji, T.B. and Ranjbar, A.A. A review on opticalproperties and application of nanouids in directabsorption solar collectors (DASCs)", Renewable andSustainable Energy Reviews, 72, pp. 10{32 (2017).23. Wang, D., Jia, Y., He, Y., Wang, L., Fan, J., Xie,H., and Yu, W. Enhanced photo thermal conversionproperties of magnetic nanouids through rotatingmagnetic eld for direct absorption solar collector",Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 557, pp. 266{275 (2019).24. Wang, D., Jia, Y., He, Y., Wang, L., Xie, H., andYu, W. Photo thermal eciency enhancement of ananouid-based direct absorption solar collector utilizingmagnetic nano-rotor", Energy Conversion andManagement, 199, p. 111996 (2019).25. Huang, J., Chen, Z., Du, Z., Xu, X., Zhang,Z., and Fang, X. A highly stable hydroxylatedgraphene/ethylene glycol-water nanouid with excellentextinction property at a low loading for direct absorptionsolar collectors", Thermochimica Acta, 684,p. 178487 (2020).26. Sharaf, O.Z., Rizk, N., Joshi, C.P., Jaoude, M.A., Al-Khateeb, A.N., Kyritsis, D.C., Abu-Nada, E., andMartinc, M.N. Ultrastable plasmonic nanouids inoptimized direct absorption solar collectors", EnergyConversion and Management, 199, p. 112010 (2019).27. Hazra, S.K., Ghosh, S., and Nandi, T.K. Photothermalconversion characteristics of carbon blackethyleneglycol nanouids for applications in directabsorption solar collectors", Applied Thermal Engineering,163, p. 114402 (2019).28. Wang, K., He, Y., Kan, A., Yu, W., Wang, D., Zhang,L., Zhu, G., Xie, H., and She, X. Signi cant photothermal conversion enhancement of nanouids inducedby Rayleigh-Benard convection for direct absorptionsolar collectors", Applied Energy, 254, p. 113706(2019).29. Delfani, S., Esmaeili, M., and Karami, M. Applicationof arti cial neural network for performance predictionof a nanouid-based direct absorption solar collector",Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 36,p. 100559 (2019).30. Wang, Z., Qu, J., Zhang, R., Han, X., and Wu, J.Photo-thermal performance evaluation on MWCNTsdispersedmicroencapsulated PCM slurries for directabsorption solar collectors", Journal of Energy Storage,26, p. 100793 (2019).31. Li, B., Lin, Y., Zhu, L., and Zhang, W. E ects of non-Newtonian behavior on the thermal performance ofnanouids in a horizontal channel with discrete regionsof heating and cooling", Applied Thermal Engineering,94, pp. 404{412 (2015).32. Hojjat, M., Etemad, S.Gh., Bagheri, R., and Thibault,J. Thermal conductivity of non-Newtonian nanouids:Experimental data and modeling using neuralnetwork", International Journal of Heat and MassTransfer, 54(6), pp. 1017{1023 (2011).33. Pimenta, T.A. and Campos, J.B.L.M. Heat transfercoecients from Newtonian and non-Newtonian uidsowing in laminar regime in a helical coil", InternationalJournal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 58(2), pp.676{690 (2013).V. Sadeghi et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions B: Mechanical Engineering 28 (2021) 1284{1297 129734. Shari Asl, M., Toghraei, D.A., and Azimian, R.Numerical investigation on heat transfer coecientenhancement of non-Newtonian nanouid in the turbulentow inside a tube", Indian J. Sci. Res., 1(2),pp. 363{369 (2014).35. Akbari, O.A., Toghraie, D., Karimipourc, A.,Marzband, A., and Ahmadi, Gh.R. The e ect ofvelocity and dimension of solid nanoparticles on heattransfer in non-Newtonian nanouid", Physica E, 86,pp. 68{75 (2017).36. Shamsi, M.R., Ali Akbari, O., Marzban, A., Toghraie,D., and Mashayekhi, R. Increasing heat transfer ofnon-Newtonian nanouid in rectangular microchannelwith triangular ribs", Physica E, 93, pp. 167{178(2017).37. Shahsavani, E., Afrand, M., and Kalbasi, R. Usingexperimental data to estimate the heat transferand pressure drop of non-Newtonian nanouid owthrough a circular tube: Applicable for use in heatexchangers", Applied Thermal Engineering, 129, pp.1573{1581 (2018).38. Siddiqa, S., Begum, N., Hossain, A., Shoaib, M., andGorla, R.S.R. Radiative heat transfer analysis of non-Newtonian dusty Casson uid ow along a complexwavy surface", Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A:Applications, an International Journal of Computationand Methodology, 73(4), pp. 209{221 (2017).39. Gorji, T.B. and Ranjbar, A.A. A numerical andexperimental investigation on the performance of alow-ux direct absorption solar collector (DASC) usinggraphite, magnetite and silver nanouids", SolarEnergy, 135, pp. 493{505 (2016).40. Mo at, R.J. Describing the uncertainties in experimentalresults", Experimental Thermal and FluidScience, 1(1), pp. 3{17 (1988).41. Marcano, D.C., Kosynkin, D.V., Berlin, J.M., Sinitskii,A., Sun, Z., Slesarev, A., Alemany, L.B., Lu,W., and Tour, J.M. Improved synthesis of grapheneoxide", ACS Nano, 4(8), pp. 4806{4814 (2010).42. Tabrizi, A.G., Arsalani, N., Namazi, H., andAhadzadeh, I. Vanadium oxide assisted synthesisof polyaniline nanoarrays on graphene oxide sheetsand its application in super capacitors", Journal ofElectroanalytical Chemistry, 798, pp. 34{41 (2017).43. Chen, H., Ding, Y., and Tan, C. Rheological behaviorof nanouids", New J. Phys., 9(10), pp. 367{367(2007).44. Einstein, A. Correction of my Work: A new determinationof the molecular dimensions", Ann. Phys.,34(3), pp. 591{592 (1911).45. Prasad, A.R., Singh, S., and Nagar, H. A reviewon nanouids: Properties and applications", InternationalJournal of Advance Research and InnovativeIdeas in Education, 3(3), pp. 3185{3209 (2017).46. Noguez, C. Optical properties of isolated and supportedmetal nanoparticles", Optical Materials, 27(7),pp. 1204{1211 (2005).47. Taylor, R.A., Otanicar, T., and Rosengarten, G.Nanouid-based optical lter optimization for PV/Tsystems", Science & Applications, 1(34), pp. 1{7(2012).48. Taylor, R.A., Phelan, P.E., Otanicar, T.P., Adrian,R., and Prasher, R. Nanouid optical property characterization:towards ecient direct absorption solarcollectors", Nanoscale Res Lett, 6(1), p. 225 (2011).49. Struckmann, F. Analysis of at plate solar collector",Project Report MVK 160, Lund, Sweden, Heat andMass Transport (2008).