Sensitivity analysis and optimization of the surface roughness in the incremental forming of mild steel sheets

Document Type : Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Automotive Simulation and Optimal Design Research Laboratory, School of Automotive Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Flexibility and simple tooling make the incremental sheet forming (ISF) a great process to create complex shapes from mild steel sheets. It is a significant issue to reduce the surface roughness (SR) which is a weakness in the manufacturing the mild steel parts in ISF process.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the ISF process parameters on the SR of the mild steel sheets. Feed rate, tool diameter, vertical step and spindle speed are chosen as four input variables in the experimental tests. Taguchi design of experiment (DOE) and the analysis of variance (ANVOA) are used to optimize the SR by investigating the parameters effects and their interactions. According to the obtained results, the vertical step reduction and increase in tool diameter, decrease the roughness on the surface of the mild steel sheets during the single-point incremental forming (SPIF). In addition, the tool speed in term of both rotation and feed have little effect on the surface roughness. The results of a validation test demonstrates that the Taguchi technique and the ANOVA can effectively optimize the level of each variable to ensure the best SR.

Keywords


References
1. Jeswiet, J. and Hagan, E. Rapid proto-typing of a
headlight with sheet metal", 9th International Conference
on Sheet Metal Forming, Leuven, Belgium, pp.
165{170 (2001).
2. Leach, D., Green, A.J., and Bramley, A.N. A new
incremental sheet forming process for small batch
324 M.H. Shojaeefard et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions B: Mechanical Engineering 28 (2021) 316{325
and prototype parts", 9th International Conference on
Sheet Metal Forming, Leuven, Belgium, pp. 211{218
(2001).
3. Filice, L., Fratini, L., and Micari, F. Analysis of
material formability in incremental forming", CIRP
Annals- Manufacturing Technology, 51(1), pp. 199{
202 (2002).
4. Powell, N. and Andrew, C. Incremental forming of

anged sheet metal components without dedicated
dies", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers,
Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture,
206(1), pp. 41{47 (1992).
5. Matsubara, S. Incremental backward bulge forming
of a sheet metal with a hemispherical tool", Journal of
the Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity, 35(406),
pp. 1311{1316 (1994).
6. Silva, M.B. and Martins, P.A. Two-point incremental
forming with partial die: theory and experimentation",
Journal of Material Engineering Performance, 22(4),
pp. 1018{1027 (2013).
7. Hagan, E. and Jeswiet, J. Analysis of surface roughness
for parts formed by computer numerical controlled
incremental forming", Proceedings of the Institution of
Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering
Manufacture, 218(10), pp. 1307{1312 (2004).
8. Cerro, I., Maidagan, E., Arana, J., et al. Theoretical
and experimental analysis of the dieless incremental
sheet forming process", Journal of Materials Processing
Technology, 177(1{3), pp. 404{408 (2006).
9. Durante, M., Formisano, A., Langella, A., et al. The
in
uence of tool rotation on an incremental forming
process", Journal of Materials Processing Technology,
209(9), pp. 4621{4626 (2009).
10. Hamilton, K. and Jeswiet, J. Single point incremental
forming at high feed rates and rotational speeds:
Surface and structural consequences", CIRP Annals-
Manufacturing Technology, 59(1), pp. 311{314 (2010).
11. Bhattacharya, A., Maneesh, K., Venkata Reddy, N.,
et al. Formability and surface nish studies in single
point incremental forming", Journal of Manufacturing
Science and Engineering, 133(6), pp. 061020{1{
061020{8 (2011).
12. Lu, B., Fang, Y., Xu, D.K., et al. Mechanism
investigation of friction-related e ects in single point
incremental forming using a developed oblique rollerball
tool", International Journal of Machine Tools &
Manufacture, 85, pp. 14{29 (2014).
13. Echrif, S.B.M. and Hrairi, M. Signi cant parameters
for the surface roughness in incremental forming process",
Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 29(6),
pp. 697{703 (2014).
14. Gulati, V., Aryal, A., and Katyal, P. Process parameters
optimization in single point incremental forming",
Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Series
C, 97(2), pp. 185{193 (2016).
15. Yao, Z., Li, Y., Yang, M., et al. Parameter optimization
for deformation energy and forming quality
in single point incremental forming process using response
surface methodology", Journal of Advances in
Mechanical Engineering, 9(7), pp. 1{15 (2017).
16. Taherkhani, A., Basti, A., and Nariman Zadeh, N.
Achieving maximum dimensional accuracy and surface
quality at the shortest possible time in single-point
incremental forming via multi-objective optimization",
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers,
Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 233(3),
pp. 900{913 (2018).
17. Asghari, A., Sarband, A., and Habibnia, M. Optimization
of multiple quality characteristics in twopoint
incremental forming of aluminum 1050 by grey
relational analysis", Proceedings of the Institution of
Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical
Engineering Science, 203, pp. 1989{1996 (2017).
18. Khalkhali, A., Noraie, H., and Sarmadi, M. Sensitivity
analysis and optimization of hot-stamping process
of automotive components using analysis of variance
and Taguchi technique", Proceedings of the Institution
of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process
Mechanical Engineering, 231(4), pp. 732{746 (2016).
19. Tang, L., Ma, Y., Wang, J., et al. Robust parameter
design of supply chain inventory policy
considering the uncertainty of demand and lead
time", Scientia Iranica, 26(5), pp. 1{34 (2018). DOI:
10.24200/sci.2018.5205.1217
20. Roy, R.K., A Primer on the Taguchi Method, Society
of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), Michigan, USA
(2010).
21. Malkin, S. and Guo, C., Grinding Technology-Theory
and Applications of Machining with Abrasives, Industrial
Press, New York, USA (2008).
22. Shojaeefard, M.H., Kalkhali, A., and Shahbaz, S.O.
Analysis and optimization of the surface waviness
in the single-point incremental sheet metal forming",
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers,
Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering,
233(4), pp. 919{925 (2018).
23. Moghaddam, M. and Kolahan, F. Using combined arti
cial neural network and particle swarm optimization
algorithm for modeling and optimization of electrical
discharge machining process", Scientia Iranica, 27(3),
pp. 1{22 (2019). DOI: 10.24200/sci.2019.5152.1123
24. Mohammadi, S., Cheraghalikhani, A., and Ramezanian,
R. A joint scheduling of production and distribution
operations in a
ow shop manufacturing
system", Scientia Iranica, Transactions E: Industrial
Engineering, 25(2), pp. 911{930 (2018).
M.H. Shojaeefard et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions B: Mechanical Engineering 28 (2021) 316{325 325
25. Hemmati Far, M., Haleh, H., and Saghaeia, A. A

exible cell scheduling problem with automated guided
vehicles and robots under energy-conscious policy",
Scientia Iranica, Transactions E: Industrial Engineering,
25(1), pp. 339{358 (2018).
26. Ross, P.J., Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering,
McGraw-Hill, New York, USA (1988).