Designing and analyzing two non-invasive current sensors using Ampere's force law

Document Type : Article

Author

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

Abstract

Here two different non-invasive current sensors are proposed, modeled and analyzed. The current sensors are based on the Ampere Force Law (AFL), defining the magnetic force between two parallel wire carrying currents. These current sensors can be used for detecting/sensing DC and AC currents as well as their combination in a single wire or multiple wires, and they do not rely on any permanent magnets for operation. In the first configuration, there are two microbeams, in which one of them is at the vicinity of the wire and undergoes the mechanical vibrations due to magnetic force between the wire and the microbeam. The movement of the microbeam while it is generating a magnetic field induces a current inside the another microbeam, which is stationary, as the output signal of the current sensor. In the second configuration, a single composite piezoelectric microbeam is used. The magnetic force between the wire and the piezoelectric microbeam leads the piezoelectric microbeam to move, thus it produces a voltage. Both configurations present an extremely low power consumption, which is not dependent on the sensitivity of the current sensors. The dynamic response, sensitivity and power consumption of the current sensors are investigated, compared and discussed.

Keywords


  1. References:

    1. Cao, Xi, Xiao-Jian Tian, and Dong F. Wang Wireless electric current sensing via integrating a magneticpiezoelectric
      cantilever with a microstrip antenna", Micro & Nano Letters, 12(11), pp. 871{874 (2017).
    2. Kouhpanji, M.R.Z., Behzadirad, M., Feezell, D., and Busani, T. Insuciency of the Young's modulus for illustrating
      the mechanical behavior of GaN nanowires", Nanotechnology, 29(20), p. 205706 (2018).
    3. Zamani Kouhpanji, M.R. Investigating the classical and non-classical mechanical properties of GaN
      nanowires", MS. Thesis, Univ. New Mex. (2017).
      4. Xian, W., Li, X., Wang, D.F., Kobayashi, T., Itoh, T., and Maeda, R. Precise current sensing using a piezoelectric
      cantilever based current sensor", Solid-State Sensors, Actuators Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS), 2017 19th Int. Conf., pp. 1057{1060 (2017).
      5. Zamani Kouhpanji, M.R., Behzadirad, M., and Busani, T. Classical continuum theory limits to determine the size-dependency of mechanical properties of GaN NWs", Journal of Applied Physics, 122(22), 225113 (2017).
      6. Zamani Kouhpanji, M.R. and Jafaraghaei, U. A semianalytical approach for determining the nonclassical
      mechanical properties of materials", J. Mech. Behav. Mater., 26(5{6), pp. 193{203 (2017).
      M.R. Zamani Kouhpanji/Scientia Iranica, Transactions D: Computer Science & ... 29 (2022) 183{192 191 7. Alaie, S., Hossein-Zadeh, M., Baboly, M.G., Zamani,
      M., and Leseman, Z.C. Enhancing mechanical quality factors of micro-toroidal optomechanical resonators
      using phononic crystals", J. Microelectromechanical Syst., 25(2), pp. 311{319 (2016).
      8. Lao, S.B., Chauhan, S.S., Pollock, T.E., Schroder,T., Choi, I.S., and Salehian, A. Design, fabrication
      and temperature sensitivity testing of a miniaturepiezoelectric-based sensor for current measurements",
      Actuators, 3, pp. 162{181 (2014).
      9. Sherman, C.T., Wright, P.K., and White, R.M. Sensors
      and Actuators A: Physical validation and testing
      of a MEMS piezoelectric permanent magnet current
      sensor with vibration canceling", Sensors Actuators A.
      Phys., 248, pp. 206{213 (2016).
      10. Leland, E.S., White, R.M., and Wright, P.K. Design
      and fabrication of a MEMS AC electric current sensor",
      Adv. Sci. Technol., 54, pp. 350{355 (2008).
      11. Chattock, A.P. On a magnetic potentiometer", The
      London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine
      and Journal of Science, 24(146), pp. 94{96 (1887).
      12. Ward, D.A. and Exon, J.L.T. Using Rogowski coils
      for transient current measurements", Eng. Sci. Educ.
      J., 2(3), p. 105 (1993).
      13. Ramsden, E., Hall-E ect Sensors: Theory and Application,
      Newnes (2011).
      14. Ziegler, S., Woodward, R.C., Iu, H.H.-C., and Borle,
      L.J. Current sensing techniques: A review", IEEE
      Sens. J., 9(4), pp. 354{376 (2009).
      15. Breth, L., Dimopoulos, T., Schotter, J., Rott, K.,
      Bruckl, H., and Suess, D. Fluxgate principle applied
      to a magnetic tunnel junction for weak magnetic  eld
      sensing", IEEE Trans. Magn., 47(6 PART 1), pp.
      1549{1553 (2011).
      16. Julliere, M. Tunneling between ferromagnetic  lms",
      Phys. Lett. A, 54(3), pp. 225{226 (1975).
      17. Lin, Q. Bin and Du, G.T. The study of a MEMS
      magnetic  eld sensor based on 'cross-shape' ferromagnetic
       lm", In Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech
      Publications Ltd, 694, pp. 523{527 (2011).
      18. Hui, Y., Nan, T.X., Sun, N.X., and Rinaldi, M.
      MEMS resonant magnetic  eld sensor based on an
      AlN/FeGaB bilayer nano-plate resonator", 2013 IEEE
      26th Int. Conf. Micro Electro Mech. Syst., 1, pp. 721{
      724 (2013).
      19. Wang, D.F. and Maeda, R. Analytical study on
      cantilever resonance type magnet-integrated sensor
      device for micro-magnetic  eld detection", Microsyst.
      Technol., 21(6), pp. 1167{1172 (2015).
      20. Leland, E.S., White, R.M., and Wright, P.K. Energy
      scavenging power sources for household electrical monitoring",
      PowerMEMS, pp. 165{168 (2006).
      21. Wang, D.F., Liu, H., Li, X., Li, Y., Xian, W.,
      Kobayashi, T., Itoh, T., and Maeda, R. Passive
      MEMS DC electric current sensor: Part I-Theoretical
      considerations", IEEE Sensors Journal, 17(5), pp.
      1230{1237 (2016).
      22. Shang, X., Li, Y., Liu, H., Kobayashi, T., Wang,
      D.F., Itoh, T., and Maeda, R. Developing MEMS DC
      electric current sensor for end-use monitoring of DC
      power supply: Part VI-Corresponding relationship between
      sensitivity and magnetic induction", Des. Test,
      Integr. Packag. MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP), Symp., pp.
      1{4 (2017).
      23. Zamani Kouhpanji, M.R. Paired-wire carrying current
      actuators and piezoelectric beam sensors for
      microelectromechanical systems", Microsyst. Technol.,
      24(5), pp. 2401{2408 (2018).
      24. Olszewski, O.Z., Houlihan, R., Blake, A., Mathewson,
      A., and Jackson, N. Evaluation of vibrational
      piezoMEMS harvester that scavenges energy
      from a magnetic  eld surrounding an AC currentcarrying
      wire", Journal of Microelectromechanical System,
      26(6), pp. 1298{1305 (2017).
      25. Zamani Kouhpanji, M.R. Demonstrating the e ects
      of elastic support on power generation and storage
      capability of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices",
      J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 30(2), pp. 323{332
      (2019).
      26. Leland, E.S., Wright, P.K., and White, R.M. A
      MEMS AC current sensor for residential and commercial
      electricity end-use monitoring", J. Micromechanics
      Microengineering, 19(9), p. 094018 (2009).
      27. Xian, W. and Wang, D.F. Position and orientation
      correction scheme for current sensing based on
      magnetic piezoelectric cantilevers", 143501, pp. 1{12
      (2017).
      28. Zamani Kouhpanji, M.R. Studying the dynamical
      response of nano-microelectromechanical devices for
      nanomechanical testing of nanostructures", Int. J.
      Mech. Aerospace, Ind. Mechatron. Manuf. Eng., 11,
      pp. 1802{1809 (2017).
      29. Zamani Koujpanji, M.R. Designing and analyzing
      nano/microelectromechanical device for fatigue and
      fracture characterization of nanomaterials", Adv. Nat.
      Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., pp. 351{1356{1, #35
      (2017).
      30. Kahrobaiyan, M.H., Asghari, M., Hoore, M., and
      Ahmadian, M.T. Nonlinear size-dependent forced
      vibrational behavior of microbeams based on a nonclassical
      continuum theory", J. Vib. Control, 18(5),
      pp. 696{711 (2012).
      31. Nayfeh, M.H. and Brussel, M.K., Electricity and Magnetism,
      Courier Dover Publications (2015).
      32. Feynman, R.P., Leighton, R.B., and Sands, M. The
      Feynman lectures on physics", vol. I, American Journal
      of Physics, 33(9), pp. 750{752 (1965)
      33. Roundy, S. andWright, P.K. A piezoelectric vibration
      based generator for wireless electronics", Smart Mater.
      Struct., 13(5), pp. 1131{1142 (2004).
      34. Xiang, H.J. and Shi, Z.F. Static analysis for functionally
      graded piezoelectric actuators or sensors under
      a combined electro-thermal load", Eur. J. Mech.
      A/Solids, 28(2), pp. 338{346 (2009).
      192 M.R. Zamani Kouhpanji/Scientia Iranica, Transactions D: Computer Science & ... 29 (2022) 183{192
      35. Rumble, J., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,
      CRC press (2017).