Sustainable use of stabilized flood mud as subgrade soil for low volume traffic roads

Document Type : Article


1 Department of Geotechnics and Transportation, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

2 - Department of Geotechnics and Transportation, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. - Centre of Tropical Geoengineering (GEOTROPIK), School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

3 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9546, Mississippi State, USA

4 Center of Excellence in Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Development, School of Civil Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand


This research was carried out to identify the basic properties of flood mud and the efficiency of biomass silica (SH85) as a stabiliser to improve the strength of this mud. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) testing was carried out on untreated soil and soil treated with 2%, 4%, and 9% SH85 at three and seven curing days. The microstructure of SH85 treated flood mud was investigated via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (EDX) analyses. It was found that the strength of treated soil increases two to seven times that of the untreated soil strength where the highest strength was recorded at 949 kPa after the soil had been treated with 9% of SH85 for seven days. A polynomial trend was observed with an R2 greater than 95% relationship between SH85 content versus UCS, with different curing periods. The seven-day UCS of SH85 treated flood mud meets the strength requirement of 0.8 MPa for Malaysian subgrade material of low traffic volume roads and the compressibility was significantly reduced when SH85 content was greater than 4%. It was found from the FESEM and EDX results that cementitious products leading to strength improvement fill the voids of the treated soil.


Main Subjects

1. Agence France-Presse Asia One Floods kill 21 in
Malaysia, waters recede", 31 December (2014).
2. Rashid, A.S.A., Lati , N., Meehan, C.L., and Manahiloh,
K.N. Sustainable improvement of tropical
residual soil using an environmentally friendly additive",
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 35(6),
pp. 2613{2623 (2017).
3. Shakir, A.A. and Mohammed, A.A. Manufacturing of
bricks in the past, in the present and in the future:
A state of the art Review", International Journal
of Advances in Applied Sciences, 2(3), pp. 145{156
4. Jabatan Kerja Raya Design guide for alternative
pavement structure (low volume roads)", Jabatan
Kerja Raya Malaysia (JKR), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5. Datta, T., Roy, T.K., and Roy, S.K. E ect of
subgrade on rutting of
exible pavement in low volume
roads", Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference,
Rorkee, India, pp. 22{24 (2013).
6. AwgShahminan, D.N.I.A., Rashid, A.S.A., Ridzuan
Bunawan, A., Yaacob, H., and Noor, N.M. Relationship
between strength and liquidity index of
cement stabilized laterite for subgrade application",
International Journal of Soil Science, 9(1), pp. 16{21
7. Rashid, A.S.A., Kalatehjari, R., Noor, N.M., Yaacob,
H., Moayedi, H., and Sing, L.K. Relationship between
liquidity index and stabilized strength of local
subgrade materials in a tropical area", Measurement:
Journal of the International Measurement Confederation,
55, pp. 231{237 (2014).
8. A
aki, E., Sedighi, P., and Eslami, A. Study on the
failure behavior of three di erent stabilized problematic
soils", Scientia Iranica, A, 21(4), pp. 1231{1240
9. Arulrajah, A., Mohammadinia, A., D' Amico, A.,
and Horpibulsuk, S. E ect of lime kiln dust as an
alternative binder in the stabilization of construction
and demolition materials", Construction and Building
Materials, 152, pp. 999{1007 (2017).
10. Ebadi, M., Habibagahi, G., and Hataf, N. E ect of
cement treatment on soil non-woven geotextile interface",
Scientia Iranica, A, 22(1), pp. 69{80 (2015).
11. Hassan, W.H.W., Rashid, A.S.A., Lati , N., Horpibulsuk,
S., and Borhamdin, S. Strength and morphological
characteristics of organic soil stabilized with magnesium
chloride", Quarterly Journal of Engineering
Geology and Hydrogeology, 50(4), pp. 454{459 (2017).
12. Hesham, A.H.I. Cement kiln dust chemical stabilization
of expansive soil exposed at El-Kawther quarter,
Sohag Region, Egypt", International Journal of Geosciences,
4, pp. 1416{1424 (2013).
13. Jin, L.J., Yunus, N.Z.M., Hezmi, M.A., Rashid,
A.S.A., Marto, A., Kalatehjari, R., Pakir, F., Mashros,
N., and Ganiyu, A. Predicting the e ective depth of
soil stabilization for marine clay treated by biomass
silica", KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 22(11),
pp. 4316{4326 (2018).
14. Lati , N., Rashid, A.S.A., Siddiqua, S., and Horpibulsuk,
S. Micro-structural analysis of strength development
in low- and high swelling clays stabilized with
magnesium chloride solution - A green soil stabilizer",
Applied Clay Science, 118, pp. 195{206 (2015).
15. Lati , N., Marto, A., Rashid, A.S.A., and Yii, J.L.J.
Strength and physico-chemical characteristics of
ash-bottom ash mixture", Arabian Journal for Science
and Engineering, 40(9), pp. 2447{2455 (2015).
16. Lati , N., Rashid, A.S.A., Siddiqua, S., and Majid,
M.Z.A. Strength measurement and textural characteristics
of tropical residual soil stabilised with liquid
polymer", Measurement: Journal of the International
Measurement Confederation, 91, pp. 46{54 (2016).
17. Lati , N., Horpibulsuk, S., Meehan, C.L., Majid,
M.Z.A., and Rashid, A.S.A. Xanthan gum biopolymer:
An eco-friendly additive for stabilization of
tropical organic peat", Environmental Earth Sciences,
75(9), 825: 1{10 (2016).
18. Lati , N., Rashid, A.S.A., Marto, A., and Tahir, M.M.
E ect of magnesium chloride solution on the physicochemical
characteristics of tropical peat", Environmental
Earth Sciences, 75(3), pp. 1{9 (2016).
19. Lati , N., Rashid, A.S.A., Ecemis, N., Tahir, M.M.,
and Marto, A. Time-dependent physicochemical characteristics
of Malaysian residual soil stabilized with
magnesium chloride solution", Arabian Journal of
Geosciences, 9(1), pp. 1{12 (2016).
20. Lati , N., Eisazadeh, A., Marto, A., and Meehan, C.L.
Tropical residual soil stabilization: A powder form
material for increasing soil strength", Construction
and Building Materials, 147, pp. 827{836 (2017).
N.A. Ibrahim et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2719{2726 2725
21. Lati , N., Vahedifard, F., Ghazanfari, E., and Rashid,
A.S.A. Sustainable usage of calcium carbide residue
for stabilization of clays", Journal of Materials in Civil
Engineering, 30(6), p. 04018099 (2018).
22. Phummiphan, I., Horpibulsuk, S., Phoo-ngernkham,
T., Arulrajah, A., and Shen, S.L. Marginal lateritic
soil stabilized with calcium carbide residue and
ash geopolymers as a sustainable pavement base material",
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 29(2),
04016195 (2017).
23. Phummiphan, I., Horpibulsuk, S., Sukmak, P.,
Chinkulkijniwat, A., Arulrajah, A., and Shen, S.L.
Stabilisation of marginal lateritic soil using high
y ash based geopolymer", Road Materials and
Pavement Design, 17(4), pp. 877{891 (2016).
24. Rashid, A.S.A., Zainudin, Z., Md Noor, N., and
Yaacob, H. E ect of stabilized laterite on California
bearing ratio (CBR) and uncon ned compressive
strength (UCS)", Electronic Journal of Geotechnical
Engineering, 18(X), pp. 5655{5660 (2013).
25. Rashid, A.S.A., Shahrin, M.I., Horpibulsuk, S., Hezmi,
M.A., Yunus, Z.M., and Borhamdin, S. Development
of sustainable masonry units from mud
ood soil:
strength and morphology investigations", Construction
and Building Materials, 131, pp. 682{689 (2017).
26. Sukmak, P., Horpibulsuk, S., Shen, S.L., Chindaprasirt,
P., and Suksiripattanpong, C. Factors in-

uencing strength development in clay-
y ash geopolymer",
Construction and Building Materials, 47, pp.
1125{1136 (2013).
27. Sukmak, P., Silva, P.D., Horpibulsuk, S., and Chindaprasirt,
P. Sulfate resistance of clay-Portland cement
and clay-high calcium
y ash geopolymer", Journal
of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 27(5),
04014158 (2015).
28. Yoobanpot, N., Jamsawang, P., and Horpibulsuk, S.
Strength behavior and microstructural characteristics
of soft clay stabilized with cement kiln dust and
ash residue", Applied Clay Science, 141, pp. 141{151
29. Zainuddin, N., Mohd Yunus, N.Z., Mohammed Al-
Bared, M.A., Marto, A., Harahap, I.S.H., and Rashid,
A.S.A. Measuring the engineering properties of marine
clay treated with disposed granite waste", Measurement:
Journal of the International Measurement
Confederation, 131, pp. 50{60 (2018).
30. Kua, T.A., Arulrajah, A., Horpibulsuk, S., Du, Y.J.,
and Suksiripattanapong, C. Engineering and environmental
evaluation of spent co ee ground stabilised
with industrial by-products as a road subgrade material",
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy,
19(1), pp. 63{75 (2017).
31. Lati , N., Christopher, L., Meehan, C.L., Majid,
M.Z.A., and Horpibulsuk, S. Strengthening using a
calcium-based non-traditional additive: A micro-level
study", Applied Clay Science, 132{133, pp. 182{193
32. Lati , N., Eisazadeh, A., and Marto, A. Strength
behavior and microstructural characteristic of tropical
laterite soil treated with the sodium silicate-based
liquid stabilizer", Environmental Earth Science, 72,
pp. 91{98 (2014).
33. Lati , N., Marto, A., and Eisazadeh, A. Physicochemical
behavior of tropical laterite soil stabilized
with non-traditional additive", Acta Geotechnica, 11,
pp. 433{443 (2015).
34. Turkoz, M., Savas, H., Acaz, A., and Tosun, H.
The e ect of magnesium chloride solution on the
engineering properties of clay soil with expansive and
dispersive characteristics", Applied Clay Science, 101,
pp. 1{9 (2014).
35. British Standard Institution, Method of test for soils
for civil engineering purposes", BS 1377, London
36. AASTHO T99. Standard method of test for moisturedensity
relations of soils using a 2.5-kg (5.5-lb) rammer
and a 305-mm (12-in.) drop", American Association
of State Highway and Transportation Ocials
(AASHTO) (2017).
37. Liu, C. and Evett, J., Soils and Foundations, 8th Edn.,
Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey (2014).
38. Mathew, B.J., Sudhakar, M., and Natarajan, C.
Development of coal ash - GGBS based geopolymer
bricks", European International Journal of Science and
Technology, 2(5), pp. 133{139 (2013).