Static performance of geosynthetic reinforced soil walls with peripheral soil-cement mixtures

Document Type : Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Brunch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran.


Recently, much effort has been devoted to improving the performance of geosynthetic reinforced walls under various stress conditions. In this research, the effect of using cemented mixed soil as a backfill material is studied on the static response of geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) walls. For this, numerical models based on a finite-difference code are made according to one of the Royal Military College’s (RMC) full scale test walls with a segmental facing. Different arrangements of soil reinforcement are considered in the presence of cemented sandy soil and sandy soil alone. In the cement-treated approach, each reinforcement layer is surrounded by a 30 cm cemented sand soil. The results show that using cement-treated sandy soil decreases the maximum deformation of the wall by as much as 75% compared with the case where untreated sandy soil is used. Moreover, by using cemented soil around reinforcements, the reinforcement forces reduce considerably. Therefore, increasing the number of reinforcement layers in the backfill will decrease the face wall deformation as well as the reinforcement forces, which are not cost-effective in many situations. It is also suggested that using the cement-treated technique can be an efficient cost-saving method compared with common GRS walls.


1. Yang, G., Zhang, B., and Zhou, Q. Behaviour of geogrid reinforced soil retaining wall with concreterigid facing", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 27(5), pp. 350{356 (2009). 2. Yoo, C. and Kim, S.B. Performance of a two-tier geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining wall under a surcharge load: full-scale load test and 3D _nite element analysis", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 26(6), pp. 460{472 (2008). 3. Zhang, M., Zhou, H., Javadi, A., and Wang, Z. Experimental and theoretical investigation of strength of soil reinforced with multi-layer horizontal-vertical orthogonal elements", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 26(1), pp. 1{13 (2008). 4. Collin, J.G., Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls, National Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA) (1996). 5. AASHTO, Load and Resistance Factor Design Movable Highway Bridge Design Speci_cations, AASHTO (2007). 6. Rogbeck, Y. and Center, N., Nordic Guidelines for Reinforced Soils and Fills, Nordic Geotechnical Societies (2005). 7. Rowe, R.K. and Ho, S. Horizontal deformation in reinforced soil walls", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 35(2), pp. 312{327 (1998). 8. Fannin, R. Long-term variations of force and strain in a steep geogrid-reinforced soil slope", Geosynthetics International, 8(1), pp. 81{96 (2001). 9. Allen, T. and Bathurst, R. Observed long-term performance of geosynthetic walls and implications for design", Geosynthetics International, 9(5{6), pp. 567{ 606 (2002). 10. Liu, H. and Ling, H.I. Uni_ed elastoplasticviscoplastic bounding surface model of geosynthetics and its applications to geosynthetic reinforced soilretaining wall analysis", ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 133(7), pp. 801{815 (2007). 11. Liu, H. andWon, M.-S. Long-term reinforcement load of geosynthetic-reinforced soil retaining walls", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 135(7), pp. 875{889 (2009). 12. Liu, H. Long-term lateral displacement of geosynthetic-reinforced soil segmental retaining walls", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 32, pp. 18{27 (2012). 13. Helwany, S., Reardon, G., and Wu, J. E_ects of back- _ll on the performance of GRS retaining walls", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 17(1), pp. 1{16 (1999). M. Derakhshandi et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 1028{1038 1037 14. Ling, H.I. and Leshchinsky, D. Finite element parametric study of the behavior of segmental block reinforced-soil retaining walls", Geosynthetics International, 10(3), pp. 77{94 (2003). 15. Ling, H.I., Liu, H., and Mohri, Y. Parametric studies on the behavior of reinforced soil retaining walls under earthquake loading", Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 131(10), pp. 1056{1065 (2005). 16. Jewell, R. Deformation calculations for reinforced soil walls", in Proc. Twelfth Int'l Conf. on Soil Mech and Found. Engr., Rio de Janeiro (1985). 17. Leshchinsky, D. and Vulova, C. Numerical investigation of the e_ects of geosynthetic spacing on failure mechanisms in MSE block walls", Geosynthetics International, 8(4), pp. 343{365 (2001). 18. Watanabe, K., Tateyama, M., Yonezawa, T., Aoki, H., Tatsuoka, F., and Koseki, J. Shaking table tests on a new type bridge abutment with geogrid-reinforced cement treated back_ll in geosynthetics: State of the art-recent developments", Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Geosynthetics, 7-ICG, held 22-27 September 2002, Nice, France (2002). 19. Aoki, H., Yonezawa, T., Tateyama, M., Shinoda, M., and Watanabe, K. Development of a seismic abutment with geogrid-reinforced cement-treated back- _lls", in Proceedings of the International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (2005). 20. Tatsuoka, F., Tateyama, M., Aoki, H., and Watanabe, K. Bridge abutment made of cement-mixed gravel back-_ll", Elsevier Geo-Engineering Book Series, 3, pp. 829{873 (2005) 21. Tatsuoka, F., Hirakawa, D., Nojiri, M., Aizawa, H., Tateyama, M., and Watanabe, K. Integral bridge with geosynthetic-reinforced back_ll", in Proc. First Pan American Geosynthetics Conference & Exhibition, Cancun, Mexico (2008). 22. Munoz, H., Tatsuoka, F., Hirakawa, D., Nishikiori, H., Soma, R., Tateyama, M., and Watanabe, K. Dynamic stability of geosynthetic-reinforced soil integral bridge", Geosynthetics International, 19(1), pp. 11{38 (2012). 23. Suga, M.N.T., Kuriyama, R., Kojima, K., and Koda, M. A series of lateral loading test of the geosyntheticreinforced soil integral bridge", J Geosynth Eng IGS Jpn Chapter, 27, pp. 157{164 (2012). 24. Koda, M., Nonaka, T., Suga, M., Kuriyama, R., Tatetama, M., and Tatsuoka, F. A series of lateral loading tests on a full-scale model of geosyntheticreinforced soil integral bridge", in Proc. International Symposium on Design and Practice of Geosynthetic- Reinforced Soil Structures (2013). 25. Yonezawa, T., Yamazaki, T., Tateyama, M., and Tatsuoka, F. Design and construction of geosyntheticreinforced soil structures for Hokkaido high-speed train line", Transportation Geotechnics, 1(1), pp. 3{ 20 (2014). 26. Hatami, K. and Bathurst, R.J. Development and veri_cation of a numerical model for the analysis of geosynthetic-reinforced soil segmental walls under working stress conditions", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 42(4), pp. 1066{1085 (2005). 27. Itasca, F.U., Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua, in Itasca Consulting Group Inc. Minneapolis, USA (2001). 28. Bathurst, R.J., Walters, D.L., Hatami, K., and Allen, T.M. Full-scale performance testing and numerical modelling of reinforced soil retaining walls", In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Earth Reinforcement, IS Kyushu 2001, Fukuoka, Japan, 14{ 16 November 2001. Edited by H., Ochiai, J., Otani, N., Yasufuku, and K., Omine. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 2, pp. 777{799 (2001). 29. Duncan, J.M., Wong, K.S., and Mabry, P. Strength, stress-strain and bulk modulus parameters for _nite element analyses of stresses and movements in soil masses", in Geotechnical Engineering, University of California (1980). 30. Bathurst, R.J. and Hatami, K. Seismic response analysis of a geosynthetic-reinforced soil retaining wall", Geosynthetics International, 5(1{2), pp. 127{ 166 (1998). 31. Saxena, S.K. and Lastrico, R.M. Static properties of lightly cemented sand", Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 104(12), pp. 1449{1464 (1978). 32. Saxena, K., Reddy, R., and Avramidis, S. Static behaviour of arti_cially cemented sand", Indian Geotechnical Journal, 18(2), pp. 110{141 (1989). 33. Hatami, K. and Bathurst, R.J. Numerical model for reinforced soil segmental walls under surcharge loading", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 132(6), pp. 673{684 (2006). 34. Collios, A., Delmas, P., Gourc, J.P., and Giroud, J.P. Experiments on soil reinforcement with geotextiles", Use of Geotextiles for Soil Improvement. ASCE Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Portland, OR, USA pp. 53{73 (1980).


Main Subjects