Investigation of transient numerical simulation of solidification and thermal behavior of metal molds with conformal cooling channels

Document Type : Article


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey.


The cooling process in metal molds is one of the important factors in the solidification process of molten metal. Molding defects such as hot spot defects and warping occur in cast products when the cooling is not uniform. However, qualified and faster cooling affects product quality positively. Molding is one of the important processes both in terms of cycle time and product quality, with permanent mold casting, high quality liquid metal casting, and quality product. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) method has been used to design metal mold cores with unique cooling channels to be compactly produced. The effects of the designed cooling channels, heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal are studied in transient numerical terms. The temperature distributions for 1, 3 and 5 seconds after casting were obtained and the solidification processes were investigated according to the standard cooling channels of the original cooling channels. According to the results obtained, it has been observed that solidification is better in originally designed cooling channels.


Main Subjects

1.Hsu, F.H., Wang, K., Huang, C.T., and Chang, R.Y. Investigation on conformal cooling system design in injection molding", Advances in Production Engineering & Management, 8(2), pp. 107-115 (2013).
2. Hongjun, L., Zitian, F., Naiyu, H., and Xuanpu, D. A note on rapid manufacturing process of metallic parts based on SLS plastic prototype", Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 142, pp. 710-713 (2003).
3. Ferreira, J.C. and Mateus, A. Studies of rapid soft tooling with conformal cooling channels for plastic injection moulding", Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 142, pp. 508-516 (2003). 4. Deckers, J., Meyers, S., Kruth, J.P., and Vleugels, J. Direct selective laser sintering/melting of high density alumina powder layers at elevated temperatures", Physics Procedia, 56, pp. 117-124 (2014). 5. Dalgarno, K.W. and Stewart, T.D. Manufacture of production injection mould tooling incorporating conformal cooling channels via indirect selective laser sintering", Proceeding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 215(B), pp. 1323-1332 (2001). 6. Wang, Y., Yu, K.M., and Wang, C.C.L. Spiral and conformal cooling in plastic injection molding", Computer-Aided Design, 63, pp. 1-11 (2015). 7. Xia, C., Fu, F., Lai, J., Yao, X., and Chen, Z. Conjugate heat transfer in fractal tree-like channels network heat sink for high-speed motorized spindle cooling", Applied Thermal Engineering, 90, pp. 1032- 1042 (2015). 8. Hu, P., He, B., and Ying, L. Numerical investigation on cooling performance of hot stamping tool with various channel designs", Applied Thermal Engineering, 96, pp. 338-351 (2016). 9. Wang, H.L., Wu, H.C., Wang, S.K., Hung, T.C., and Yang, R.J. A study of mini-channel thermal module design for achieving high stability and high capability in electronic cooling", Applied Thermal Engineering, 51, pp. 1144-1153 (2013). 10. Vojnov_a, E. The bene_ts of a conforming cooling systems the molds in injection moulding process", Procedia Engineering, 149, pp. 535-543 (2016). 11. Venkatesh, G.Y. Ravi, K., and Raghavendra, G. Comparison of straight line to conformal cooling channel in injection molding", Materials Today: Proceedings, 4(2), pp. 1167-1173 (2017). 12. Jahan, A.S. and Mounayri, H. Optimal conformal cooling channels in 3D printed dies for plastic injection molding", Procedia Manufacturing, 5, pp. 888-900 (2016). 13. Venkatesh, G.Y. and Kumar, R. Thermal analysis for conformal cooling channel", 5th International Conference of Materials Processing and Characterization (ICMPC 2016), Materials Today: Proceedings, 4, pp. 2592-2598 (2017). 14. Zehtabiyan, R.N., Damirci, D.S., Fazel, Z.M.H., and Sa_ar, A.M. Generalized heat transfer and entropy generation of strati_ed air-water ow in entrance of a mini-channel", Scientia Iranica, B, 24(5), pp. 2406- 2417 (2017). 15. Nouri, B.A. and Seyyed-Hashemi, M.H. Numerical analysis of thermally developing turbulent ow in partially _lled porous pipes", Scientia Iranica, B, 22(3), pp. 835-843 (2015). 16. Imran, A.A., Nabeel, S.M., and Hayder, M.J. Numerical and experimental investigation of heat transfer in liquid cooling serpentine mini-channel heat sink with di_erent new con_guration models", Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 6, pp. 128-139 (2018). 17. Park, H. and Dang, X.P. Development of a smart plastic injection mold with conformal cooling channels", Procedia Manufacturing, 10, pp. 48-59 (2017). 18. Sachs, E., Wylonis, E., Allen, S., Cima, M., and Guo, H. Production of injection moulding tooling with conformal cooling channels using the three dimensional printing process", Polymer Engineering and Science, 40(5), pp. 1237-1247 (2000). 19. Eimsa-ard, K. and Wannisorn, K. Conformal bubbler cooling for molds by metal deposition process", Computer-Aided Design, 69, pp. 126-133 (2015). 20. Holker, R., Haase, M., Khalifa, N.B., and Takkaya, A.E. Hot extrusion dies with conformal cooling channels produced by additive manufacturing", Aluminum Two Thousand World Congress and International Conference on Extrusion and Benchmark ICEB, pp. 4838-4846 (2015). 21. Koller, M., Walter, H., and Hameter, M. Transient numerical simulation of the melting and solidi_cation behavior of NaNO3 using a wire matrix for enhancing of the heat transfer", Energies, 9, p. 205 (2016). 22. Kumar Koli, D., Agnihotri, G., and Purohit, R. Advanced aluminium matrix composite: the critical need of automotive and aerospace engineering _elds", Materials Today: Proceeding, 2, pp. 3032-3041 (2015). 23. Furumoto, T., Ueda, T., Amino, T., Ksunoki, D., Hosokowa, A., and Tanaka, T. Finishing performance of cooling channel with face protuberance inside the molding die", Journal of Material Processing Technology, 212, pp. 2154-2160 (2012). DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.05.016 24. Ozsarac, U., I_sik, S_., Varol, F., Emin Unat, M.,  Ozdemir, C., and Aslanlar, S. Investigation of tensile properties of aluminum 6082-T6 alloys joined by cold metal transfer method by using di_erent working time", Acta Physica Polonica A, 132(3), p. 705 (2017). 25. Djendel, M., Allaoui, O., and Boubaaya, R. Characterization of alumina-titania coatings produced by atmospheric plasma spraying on 304 SS steel", Acta Physica Polonica A, 132(3), p. 538 (2017). 26. Aktas, B. , Balak, V., and Carboga, C. Dry sliding wear behavior of boron-doped AISI 1020 steels", Acta Physica Polonica A, 132(3), p. 455 (2017). O. _Ipek et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions B: Mechanical Engineering 26 (2019) 3325{3333 3333 27. Ipek, O., Kan, M., and Gurel, B. Examination of di_erent heat exchangers and the thermal activities of di_erent designs", Acta Physica Polonica A, 132(3), pp. 580-583 (2017). 28. Kara_cal_,  O. Computational material analysis of structural and hemodynamic model of coronary stent by CFD/FEA in computer aided mechanical engineering approach", Acta Physica Polonica A, 130(1), p. 249 (2016). 29. Kan, M., Ipek, O., and Gurel, B. Plate heat exchangers as a compact design and optimization of di_erent channel angles", Acta Physica Polonica A, 128(2B), pp. B-49 B-52 (2015). 30. FLUENT Manual, Chapter 21: Modeling Solidi_cation and Melting; ANSYS, Inc.: Canonsburg, PA, USA (2001). 31. Patel, D.R. and Patel, N.S. Development of Al-SiC MMCs for making valves", International Journal of Advanced Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, 2(3) pp. 2619-2628 (2016).