Brain tissue constituive material models and the finite element analysis of blast-induced traumatic brain injury

Document Type : Article

Authors

1 Mechanical Engineering Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. 58108-6050, USA.

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. 58108-6050, USA

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often happens due to assaulting loads such as blast on the human head. Finite elements (FEs) can approximately simulate the blast interactions with the human head.  An important parameter in the FE modelling procedures is the accuracy of constitutive formulation of the brain tissue. This paper is focusing on implementation of three brain tissue constitutive relations to measure and compare the dynamic behaviour of the brain under identical blast loads. For the geometry, we employ a simple spherical head model to monitor the brain tissue response and examine the uncertainties in FE brain tissue constitutive modelling. The brain tissue is constitutively modelled as hyperelastic, viscoelastic, and hyperviscoelastic type material. Intracranial pressures (ICP), strains, and shear stresses as the dynamic parameters are measured with time. These biomechanical parameters can be compared against the injury thresholds. Our analyses show that although the results for ICPs and strains are close for the three models, however, shear stresses are considerably different.  The study will further provide new insight into selecting a proper constitutive model of the brain tissue under dynamic conditions.

Keywords

Main Subjects


References
1. Cha , M., Karami, G., and Ziejewski, M. BiomechanA.
Eslaminejad et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions B: Mechanical Engineering 25 (2018) 3141{3150 3149
ical assessment of brain dynamic responses due to blast
pressure waves", Annals of Biomedical Engineering,
38(2), pp. 490-504 (2010).
2. Cotton, R., Pearce, C.W., Young, P.G., Kota, N.,
Leung, A., Bagchi, A., and Qidwai, S. Development
of a geometrically accurate and adaptable nite element
head model for impact simulation: the Naval
research laboratory-impleware head model", Computer
Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering,
19(1), pp. 101-113 (2016).
3. Eslaminejad, A., Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H., Rezaei,
A., Ziejewski, M., and Karami, G. Comparison of
brain tissue material nite element models based on
threshold for traumatic brain injury", ASME 2016
International Mechanical Engineering Congress and
Exposition, Phoenix, AZ, USA: American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (2016).
4. Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H., Rezaei, A., Eslaminejad,
A., Ziejewski, M., and Karami, G. Mechanical
response of the brain under blast: The e ect of
blast direction and the head protection", ASME 2016
International Mechanical Engineering Congress and
Exposition. Phoenix, AZ, USA: American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (2016).
5. Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H., Rezaei, A., Ziejewski, M.,
and Karami, G. Evaluation of brain tissue responses
due to the underwash overpressure of helmet and
faceshield under blast loading", International Journal
for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering,
33(1), Electrical article: E02782 (2016).
6. Grujicic, M., Bell, W.C., Pandurangan, B., and He, T.
Blast-wave impact-mitigation capability of polyurea
when used as helmet suspension-pad material", Materials
& Design, 31(9), pp. 4050-4065 (2010).
7. Moore, D.F., Jerusalem, A., Nyein, M., Noels, L.,
Ja ee, M.S., and Radovitzky, R.A. Computational
biology-modeling of primary blast e ects on the central
nervous system", Neuroimage, 47, pp. T10-T20
(2009).
8. Nyein, M.K., Jason, A.M., Yu, L., Pita, C.M.,
Joannopoulos, J.D., Moore, D.F., and Radovitzky,
R.A. In silico investigation of intracranial blast mitigation
with relevance to military traumatic brain injury",
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
(2010).
9. Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H., Rezaei, A., Ziejewski, M.,
and Karami, G. A comparative study on the protection
eciency of combat helmets against ballistic
impacts and blast waves", in Journal of Head
Trauma Rehabiliation, 12th Annual Conference on
Brain Injury, North American Brain Injury Society,
San Antonio, Texas, April 29-May 2, pp. E66-E66
(2015).
10. Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H., Karami, G., and Ziejewski,
M. The e ects of directionality of blunt impacts
on mechanical response of the brain", ASME
International Mechanical Engineering Congress and
Exposition, Montreal, Canada: American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (2014).
11. Zhang, L., Yang, K.H., and King, A.I. A proposed
injury threshold for mild traumatic brain injury",
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 126(2), pp.
226-236 (2004).
12. Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H., Jazi, M.S., Rezaei, A.,
Karami, G., and Ziejewski, M. Examination of the
protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality
for human head under blast waves", Computer
Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering,
18(16), pp. 1846-1855 (2015).
13. Hoseini-Farid, M., Eslaminejad, A., Ziejewski, M., and
Karami, G. A study on the e ects of strain rates
on characteristics of brain tissue", ASME International
Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition,
Tampa, FL, USA: American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (2017).
14. Tse, K.M., Lim, S.P., Tan, V.B.C., and Lee, H.P. A
review of head injury and nite element head models",
American Journal of Engineering, Technology and
Society, 1(5), pp. 28-52 (2015).
15. LS-DYNA, LS-DYNA keyword user manual", Version
971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation: Livermore,
California (2007)
16. Miller, K. and Chinzei, K. Constitutive modelling
of brain tissue: experiment and theory", Journal of
Biomechanics, 30(11), pp. 1115-1121 (1997).
17. Mendis, K., Stalnaker, R., and Advani, S. A constitutive
relationship for large deformation nite element
modeling of brain tissue", Journal of Biomechanical
Engineering, 117(3), pp. 279-285 (1995).
18. Cha , M.S., Ganpule, S., Gu, L., and Chandra,
N. Dynamic response of brain subjected to blast
loadings: in
uence of frequency ranges", International
Journal of Applied Mechanics, 3(04) pp. 803-823
(2011).
19. Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H. Computational biomechanics
of blast-induced traumatic brain injury", Role
of Loading Directionality, Head Protection, and Blast
Flow Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Ph.D.
Thesis (2015).