A New Heuristic Method for Improved Structuring of the Work Transformation Matrix (WTM)

Document Type : Article

Authors

1 Aerospace Department, faculty of new sciences and technologies, university of tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Aerospace group, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies (FNST), University of Tehran, North Kargar Street, Tehran, Iran.

3 Aerospace Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The design structure matrix (DSM) is a potent tool in the management of product design processes. Although the compactness and ability to represent design cycles are the main advantages of DSMs over existing traditional tools, the intact whole DSM is not always an understandable piece of information. To overcome this shortcoming, certain analyses have been proposed for a better understanding of the matrix in which partitioning and tearing have significant importance. There are several algorithms for these two analyses that mainly focus on a few rules of thumb. Although partitioning and tearing were originally developed for binary DSMs, they can be extended to numerical variants in which the work transformation matrix (WTM) is of the highest fame and application. In this paper, the authors have proposed an algorithm inspired by the formation of sugar crystals in saturated syrup for reordering the activities in a coupled block of activities (CBAs) based on their level of coupling. To implement this approach, a code was developed to achieve pseudo-optimum solutions. By using a discrete-time simulation, which was applied to an aerospace case study, it was demonstrated that the method produces restructured schemes of the WTM that are comparable/superior to the classical methods.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1. Browning, T.R. Process integration using the design structure matrix", Systems Engineering, 5(3), pp. 180- 193 (2002). 2. Baccarini, D. The concept of project complexity - A review", International Journal of Project Management, 14(4), pp. 201-204 (1996). 3. Suh, N.P., Complexity: Theory and Applications, Oxford: Oxford University Press (2005). 4. Yassine, A.A., Falkenburg, D., and Chelst, K. Engineering design management: an information structure approach", International Journal of Production Research, 13(37), pp. 2957-2975 (1999). 5. Browning, T.R. Design structure matrix extensions and innovations: a survey and new opportunities", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 63(1), pp. 27-52 (2016). 6. Browning, T.R. Applying the design structure matrix to system decomposition and integration problems: a review and new directions", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 48(3), pp. 292-306 (2001). 7. Spinner, M.P., Improving Project Management Skills and Techniques, Englewood Cli_s, Prentice Hall (1989). 8. Shishko, R., Aster, R., and Cassingham, R.C., NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1995). 9. Karniel, A. and Reich, Y. From DSM-based planning to design process simulation: a review of process scheme logic veri_cation issues", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 4(56), pp. 636-649 (2009). 10. Smith, R.P. and Eppinger, S.D. Identifying controlling features of engineering design iteration", Management Science, 3(43), pp. 276-293 (1997). 11. Steward, D.V. Planning and managing the design of systems" In Proceedings of Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology (1991). 12. Horowitz, E., Sahni, S., and Mehta, D.P., Fundamentals of Data Structures in C, Summit, NJ: Silicon Press (2007). 13. Lawler, E., Combinatorial Optimization: Networks and Matroids, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications (2004). 14. Kingston, J.H., Algorithms and Data Structures: Design, Correctness, Analysis, Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley (2004). 15. Meier, C., Yassine, A.A., and Browning, T.R. Design process sequencing with competent genetic algorithms", Journal of Mechanical Design, 6(129), p. 566 (2007). 16. Sen, C., Ameri, F., and Summers, J.D. An entropic method for sequencing discrete design decisions", Journal of Mechanical Design, 10(132) (2010). DOI: 10.1115/1.4002387 17. Tsai, J., Fang, J., and Chou, J. Optimized task scheduling and resource allocation on cloud computing environment using improved di_erential evolution algorithm", Computers & Operations Research, 12(40), pp. 3045-3055 (2013). M. Haji Jafari et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions E: Industrial Engineering 26 (2019) 2506{2523 2519 18. Maurer, M.S. Structural awareness in complex product design", PhD Dissertation, TUM (2007). 19. War_eld, J.N. Binary matrices in system modeling", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 5(SMC-3), pp. 441-449 (1973) 20. Yang, Z., Zhou, J., Deng, C., and Shao, X. Development of a design structure matrix partitioning method towards e_ective design collaboration", International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, 4(25), p. 177 (2012). 21. Shacham, M. and Kehat, E. Converging interval methods for the iterative solution of a non-linear equation", Chemical Engineering Science, 12(28), pp. 2187-2193 (1973). 22. Kusiak, A. and Wang, J. E_cient organizing of design activities", International Journal of Production Research, 4(31), pp. 753-769 (1993). 23. Eppinger, S.D., Whitney, D.E., Smith, R.P., and Gebala, D.A. Organizing the tasks in complex design projects", Lecture Notes in Computer Science Computer-Aided Cooperative Product Development, pp. 229-252 (2005). 24. Zhang, H., Qiu, W., and Zhang, H. An approach to measuring coupled tasks strength and sequencing of coupled tasks in new product development", Concurrent Engineering, 4(14), pp. 305-311 (2006). 25. Su, J.C., Chen, S., and Lin, L. A structured approach to measuring functional dependency and sequencing of coupled tasks in engineering design", Computers & Industrial Engineering, 1(45), pp. 195-214 (2003). 26. Xu, C., Li, L., and Liu, X. Tearing method of coupled activity set within concurrent design process (in Chinese)", Journal of Tongji University Natural Sciences, 38, pp. 427-431 (2010). 27. Soltanmohammad, B. and Malaek, S.M. A new method for design cycle period management in aircraft design process", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, 80(5), pp. 497-509 (2008). 28. Bashir, H.A., Alzebdeh, K., and Abdo, J. An eigenvalue based approach for assessing the decomposability of interdependent design project tasks", Concurrent Engineering, 17(1), pp. 35-42 (2009). 29. Xiao, R., Chen, T., and Chen, W. A new approach to solving coupled task sets based on resource balance strategy in product development", International Journal of Material and Product Technology, 39, pp. 251- 270 (2010). 30. Browning, T.R., Deyst, J.J., Eppinger, S.D., and Whitney, D.E. Adding value in product development by creating information and reducing risk", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 4(49), pp. 443-458 (2002). 31. Kosari, A., Haji Jafari, A., and Fakoor, M. On equivalency between numerical process DSM and state-space representation", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 4(63), pp. 404-413 (2016). 32. Cho, S. and Eppinger, S.D. A simulation-based process model for managing complex design projects", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 52(3), pp. 316-328 (2005). 33. Available at: http://www.airframer.com/aircraft detail. html?model=Fajr F-3. [Accessed: 18-Jun-2017].