Effect of stress direction on the undrained monotonic and cyclic behavior of dense sands

Document Type: Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Civil, Water, and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


Geotechnical design may be unsafe if the anisotropic behaviour of soil is not considered. The behaviour of anisotropic materials depends on the principal stresses and their directions. A detailed experimental programme was conducted to study the effect of stress direction on the monotonic and cyclic behaviour of dense sand. A total of 20 undrained tests were performed at a constant mean confining stress (σ'0m) constant intermediate principal stress ratio (b= (σ23)/(σ13)), and principal stress directions (α). Two fine sands, Babolsar and Toyoura, were selected as the test materials. The isotropic consolidated specimens were prepared using the wet tamping technique. The results showed that the major principal stress direction had little considerable effect on the mobilized friction angle at steady state or phase transformation. The results showed that stress direction had a significant effect on the non-coaxiality between the principal strain increment direction and the principal stress direction. The soil fabric was led to significant non-coaxiality value before the peak shear strength. Increasing the octahedral shear strains decreased the non-coaxiality value due to destruction of the soil particle interlock (soil fabric). The effect of stress direction on non-coaxiality and excess pore water pressure generation was also investigated.


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