A new method for eliminating membrane compliance in cyclic triaxial tests on gravelly soils

Document Type : Article

Authors

Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

A new computer controlled flow pump is developed to continuously mitigate the adverse effects of membrane compliance in conjunction with implementation of image processing for volume change measurement. The flow pump eliminates the membrane compliance by injecting or pumping out the required volume of water into or from the gravelly specimens to compensate for the erroneous volume change associated with the membrane compliance during undrained cyclic triaxial tests. This error is compounded in gravelly soils due to the large size of the grains and voids. In order to measure the volume of the specimen during the isotropic consolidation stage and calibrate the flow pump for cyclic loading, an image processing technique was used for measuring the volume change during the isotropic consolidation stage of loading while calculating membrane compliance associated with the amount of input water from the flow pump into the specimen. The results of image processing show that the increase in density of the specimens leads to an increase in the ratio of volumetric skeletal strains to axial strains and a decrease in the normalized membrane penetration. The study yields promising results for minimizing the errors associated with membrane compliance during undrained cyclic loading on gravels.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1. Tokimatsu, K. and Nakamura, K. A liquefaction test without membrane penetration e_ects", Soils Found., 26(4), pp. 127-138 (1986). 2. Evans, M.D. and Seed, H.B. Undrained cyclic triaxial testing of gravels-the e_ect of membrane compliance", Report No. UCB/EERC-87/08, University of California, Berkeley, Earthq. Eng. Res. Cent. (1987). 3. Nicholson, P.G., Seed, R.B., and Anwar, H.A. Elimination of membrane compliance in undrained triaxial testing I: measurement and evaluation", Can. Geotech. J., 30, pp. 727-738 (1993). 4. Haeri, S.M. and Shakeri, M.R. E_ect of membrane compliance on cyclic resistance of gravelly sand", Geotech. Test. J., 33(5), pp. 1-10 (2010). 5. Harder, L.F. and Seed H.B. Determination of penetration resistance for coarse-grained soils using the Becker hammer drill", Report No. UCB/EERC-86/06, University of California, Berkeley, Earthq. Eng. Res. Cent. (1986). 6. Yegian, M.K., Ghahraman, V.G., and Harutiunyan, R.N. Liquefaction and embankment failure case histories, 1988 Armenia Earthquake", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 120(3), pp. 581-596 (1994). 7. Sirovich, L. Repetitive liquefaction at a gravelly site and liquefaction in overconsolidated sands", Soils Found., 36(4), pp. 23-34 (1996). 8. Hatanaka, M., Uchida, A., and Ohara, J. "Liquefaction characteristics of a gravelly _ll lique_ed during the 1995 Hyogo-Ken Nanbu earthquake", Soils Found., 37(4), pp. 107-115 (1997). 9. Cao, Z., Youd, T.L., and Yuan X. Gravelly soils that lique_ed during 2008 Wenchuan, China earthquake, Ms=8.0", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 31, pp. 1132-1143 (2011). 10. Evans, M.D. Density changes during undrained loading-membrane compliance", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 118(12), pp. 1924-1936 (1992). 11. Raju, V.S. and Sadasivan, S.K. Membrane penetration in triaxial tests on sands", J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., 100, pp. 482-489 (1974). 12. Ismail, M.A. and Randolph, M.F. Pseudo anisotropy induced by membrane compliance in cemented granular soils", Soils Found., 45(3), pp. 39-49 (2005). 13. Nicholson, P.G., Seed, R.B., and Anwar, H.A. Elimination of membrane compliance in undrained triaxial testing II: mitigation by injection compensation", Can. Geotech. J., 30, pp. 739-746 (1993). 3194 S.M. Haeri et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 3181{3195 14. Yamashita, S., Toki, S., and Suzuke, T. E_ects of membrane penetration on modulus and Poisson_s ratio for undrained cyclic triaxial condition", Soils Found., 36(4), pp. 127-133 (1996). 15. Newland, P.L. and Alley, B.H. Volume change during drained triaxial testes on granular materials", Geotechnique, 7(1), pp. 17-34 (1957). 16. El-shoby, M.A. and Andrawes, K.Z. Deformation characteristics of granular materials under hydrostatic compression", Can. Geotech. J., 9, pp. 338-350 (1972). 17. Vaid, Y.P. and Negussey, D. A critical assessment of membrane penetration in the triaxial test", Geotech. Test. J., 7, pp. 70-76 (1984). 18. Roscoe, K.H., Scho_eld, A.N., and Thurairajah, A. An evaluation of test data for selecting a yield criterion for soils", Lab. Shear Test. Soils, Spec. Tech. Pub., 361, Philadelphia, pp. 111-128 (1963). 19. Verdugo, R. Characterization of sandy soil behavior under large deformation", PhD Thesis, University of Tokyo (1992). 20. Seed, R.B., Anwar, H.A., and Nicholson, P.G. Evaluation and mitigation of membrane compliance e_ects in undrained testing of saturated soils", Report No. SU/GT/89-01 Stanford University, Geotech. Research (1989). 21. Macari, E.J., Parker, J.K., and Costes, N.C. Measurement of volume changes in triaxial tests using digital imaging techniques", Geotech. Test. J., 2(1), pp. 103- 109 (1997). 22. Wong, R.T., Seed, H.B., and Chan, C.K. Cyclic loading liquefaction of gravelly soils", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 101(6), pp. 571-583 (1975). 23. Martin, G.R., Finn, W.D.L., and Seed, H.B. E_ects of system compliance on liquefaction tests", J. Geotech. Eng. Div., ASCE, 104(GT 4), pp. 463-479 (1978). 24. Tokimatsu, K. and Nakamura, K. A simpli_ed correction for membrane compliance in liquefaction tests", Soils Found., 27(4), pp. 111-122 (1987). 25. Ansal, A.M. and Erken, A. Posttesting correction procedure for membrane compliance e_ects on pore pressure", J. Geotech. Eng., 122(1), pp. 27-38 (1996). 26. Chan, C.K. Membrane for rock_ll triaxial testing", Technical Note, J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., ASCE, 98(SM8), pp. 849-854 (1972). 27. Lade, P.V. and Hernandez, S.B. Membrane penetration e_ects in undrained tests", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 103(2), pp. 109-125 (1977). 28. Raju, V.S. and Venkataramana, K. Undrained triaxial tests to assess liquefaction potential of sands: e_ect of membrane penetration", Proc. Int. Symp. Soils Under Cyclic and Transient Load., 2 (1980). 29. Kiekbusch, M. and Schuppener, B. Membrane penetration and its e_ect on pore water pressures," J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 103(11), pp. 1267-1279 (1977). 30. Lo, S.C.R., Chu, J., and Lee, I.K. A technique for reducing membrane penetration and bedding errors", Geotech. Test. J., 12(4), pp. 311-316 (1989). 31. Rashidian, M., Ishihara, K., Kokusho, T., Kanatani, M., and Okamoto, T. Undrained shearing behavior of very loose gravelly soils", Geotech. Spec. Pub., 56, pp. 77-91 (1995). 32. Haeri, S.M., Raeesi, R., and Shahcheraghi, S.A. Elimination of membrane compliance using _ne sandy coating on gravelly soil specimens", 5th Int. Conf. Geotech. Eng. Soil Mech., Tehran, Iran (2016). 33. Ramana, K.V. and Raju, V.S. Constant-volume triaxial tests to study the e_ects of membrane penetration", Geotech. Test. J., 4(3), pp. 117-122 (1981). 34. Evans, M.D. and Zhou S. Liquefaction behavior of sand-gravel composites", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 121(3), pp. 287-298 (1995). 35. Sivathayalan, S. and Vaid, Y.P. Truly undrained response of granular soils with no membrane-penetration e_ects", Can. Geotech. J., 35(5), pp. 730-739 (1998). 36. Ladd, R.S. Preparing of test specimens using undercompaction", Geotech. Test. J., GTJODJ, 1(1), pp. 16-23 (1978). 37. Parker, J.K. Image processing and analysis for the mechanics of granular materials experiment", ASME Proc. 19th SE Symp. Syst. Theory, Nashville, TN, March 2, ASME, Ney York (1987). 38. Ramana, K.V. and Raju, V.S. Membrane penetration in triaxial tests", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 108, pp. 305-310 (1982). 39. Baldi, G. and Nova, R. Membrane penetration e_ects in triaxial testing", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 110(3), pp. 403-420 (1984). 40. Frydman, S., Zeitlen, J.G., and Alpan, I. The membrane e_ect in triaxial testing of granular soils", J. Test. Eval., 1(1), pp. 37-41 (1973). 41. Kramer, S.L., Sivaneswaran, N., and Davis, R.O. Analysis of membrane penetration in triaxial test", J. Eng. Mech., 116(4), pp. 773-789 (1990). 42. Baziar, M.H., Shahnazari, H., and Shara_, H. A laboratory study on the pore pressure generation model for Firouzkooh silty sands using hollow torsional test", Int. J. Civ. Eng., 9(2), pp. 126-134 (2011). 43. Seed, H.B., Martin, P.P., and Lysmer, J. The generation and dissipation of pore water pressures during soil liquefaction", Report No. EERC 75-26, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif (1975). 44. Booker, J.R., Rahman, M.S., and Seed, H.B. GADFLEAA computer program for the analysis of pore pressure generation and dissipation during cyclic or earthquake loading", Report No. EERC76-24, University of California, Berkeley, Earthq. Eng. Res. Cent. (1976). 45. Lee, K.L. and Albaisa, A. Earthquake induced settlements in saturated sands", J. Geotech. Eng. Div Division, ASCE, 100(GT 4), pp. 387-406 (1974). S.M. Haeri et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 3181{3195 3195 46. Steinbach, J. Volume changes due to membrane penetration in triaxial tests on granular materials", M.Sc. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. (1967). 47. Siddiqi, F.H., Seed, R.B., Chan, K.C., Seed, H.B., and Pyke, R.M. 'Strength evaluation of coarsegrained soils", Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Berkeley, California, Report No. UCBIEERC- 87/22 (1987). 48. Banerjee, N.G., Seed, H.B., and Chan, C.K. "Cyclic behavior of dense coarse-grained materials in relation to the seismic stability of dams", University of California, Berkeley, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Report UBCJEERC-79/13 (1979).