Document Type : Article

**Authors**

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, P.O. Box 51666-14171, Iran.

**Abstract**

The change in the deck length under temperature load affects the upper part of integral bridge abutments and causes abutments rotation. The deck contraction makes the abutment move away from the backfill and causes a failure wedge. To prevent the failure wedge, a new method has been proposed. In this method, the inhibition of integral bridges under contraction is done by cables connected from each abutment to the buried piles outside the bridge along the abutments. In the analysis, the behaviour of soil around the abutment and buried piles is an important parameter which has a great influence on the results. In this paper, the soil behaviour around a laterally loaded stub abutment and buried piles was studied on laboratory stub abutment models using the PIV (particle image velocimetry) method. The PIV analysis was carried out to obtain the deformation pattern and shear strains of the soil around the stub abutment and buried piles. The effects of piles number and soil – pile interaction on the soil deformation pattern were investigated. The results showed that the use of buried piles connected by the cable avoided creating a failure wedge in the backfill.

**Keywords**

**Main Subjects**

References:

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30. Koseki, J., Munaf, Y., Tatsuoka, F., Tateyama, M., Kojima, K., and Sato, T. "Shaking and tilt table tests of geosynthetic - reinforced soil and conventional - type retaining walls", Geosynthetics International, 5(2), pp. 73-96 (2011).

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32. Rollins, K.M., Olsen, R.J., Egbert, J.J., Jensen, D.H., Olsen, K.G., and Garrett, B.H. "Pile spacing acts on lateral pile group behavior: Load tests", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 132(10), pp. 1262-1271 (2006).

33. Wood, D.M., Geotechnical Modeling, John Wiley & Sons, Spon Press, London and New York (2004).

34. White, D.J., Take, W.A., and Bolton, M.D. "Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry", Geotechnique, 53(7), pp. 619-631 (2003).

35. Hajialilue, M., Sojoudi, Y., and Azarnya, H. "Soil deformation pattern around laterally loaded piles", International Journal of Physical Modeling in Geotechnics, 11(3), pp. 116-125 (2011).

2. Dicleli, M. "Simplified model for computer-aided analysis of integral bridges", J. Bridge Eng., ASCE, 5(3), pp. 240-248 (2000).

3. Thevaneyan, K.D. and Forth, J.P. "Soil-structure interaction of integral abutment bridge", Proc., Int. Conf. on Structural Engineering Construction and Management (ICSEM 2011), Univ. of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, pp. 9-20 (2011).

4. Comisu, C.C. "Integral abutment and jointless bridges", Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute of Jassy, 63(67), pp. 107-118 (2005).

5. Pak, D., Bigelow, H., and Feldmann, M. "Design of composite bridges with integral abutments", Steel Construction, 10(1), pp. 23-30 (2017).

6. Cooke, R.S. "The concept and construction of integral bridge", Seminar on Design and Construction of Integral Bridges, Jabatan Kerja Raya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2003).

7. Thevaneyan, D., John, P., and Jianqiao, Y. "Superstructure behavior of a stub-type integral abutment bridge", J. Bridge Eng., ASCE, 19(3), pp. 1-12 (2014).

8. Arsoy, S., Baker, R., and Duncan, J. "The behavior of integral abutment bridges", Rep. VTRC 00-CR3, Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, VA (1999).

9. Marques Lima, J. and De Brito, J. "Inspection survey of 150 expansion joints in road bridges", Engineering Structures, 31(5), pp. 1077-1084 (2009).

10. Bigelow, H., Pak, D., Hoffmeister, B., Feldmann, M., Seidl, G., and Petraschek, T. "Soil-structure interaction at railway bridges with integral abutments", Procedia Engineering, 19(9), pp. 2318-2323 (2017).

11. Movahedifar, M. and Bolouri, J. "An investigation on the effect of cyclic displacement on the integral bridge abutment", Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 20(2), pp. 256-269 (2014).

12. Barr, P., Halling, M., Huffaker, C., and Boyle, H., Behavior and Analysis of an Integral Abutment Bridge, Bridges Transportation Research Board, pp. 21-41, Logan, Utah (2013).

13. Kong, B., Cai, C.S., and Kong, X. "Thermal property analysis and applications of GFRP panels to integral abutment bridges", Engineering Structures, 76, pp. 1-9 (2014).

14. Peric, D., Miletic, M., Shah, B., Esmaeily, A., and Wang, H. "Thermally induced soil structure interaction in the existing integral bridge", Engineering Structures, 106(1), pp. 484-494 (2016).

15. Arsoy, S. " Experimental and analytical investigation of piles and abutment bridges", PhD Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA (2000).

16. Horvath, J.S. "Integral - Abutment bridges: problems innovative solutions using EPS geofoam and other geosynthetices", Manhattan College Research Report No. CE/GE-00-2, pp. 1-15, New York, U.S.A. (2000).

17. Dicleli, M. and Albhaisi, S.M. "Performance of abutment backfill system under thermal variations in integral bridges built on clay", Engineering Structures, 26(7), pp. 949-962 (2004).

18. Zordan, T., Briseghella, B., and Lan, C. "Parametric and pushover analyses on integral abutment bridge", Engineering Structures, 33(2), pp. 502-515 (2011).

19. Zordan, T., Briseghella, B., and Lan, C. "Analytical formulation for limit length of integral abutment bridges", Structural Engineering International: Journal of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE), 21(3), pp. 304-310 (2011).

20. Kim, W. and Laman, J.A. "Numerical analysis method for long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges", Engineering Structures, 32(8), pp. 2247-2257 (2010).

21. Keisha, T., Kim, W., and Laman, J.A. "Parametric study and length limitations for prestressed concrete girder integral abutment bridges", Structural Engineering International, 2, pp. 21-34 (2011).

22. Kong, B., Cai, C.S., and Zhang, Y. "Parametric study of an integral abutment bridge supported by prestressed precast concrete piles", Engineering Structures, 120, pp. 37-48 (2016).

23. Olsong, S.M., Long, J.H., Hansen, J.R., Renekis, D., and LaFave, J.M. "Modification of IDOT integral abutment design limitation and details", Illinois Center for Transportation, Report No.09-054UILU-ENG- 2009-2035, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2009).

24. Civjan, S.A., Bonczar, C., Brena, S.F., DeJong, J., and Crovo, D. "Integral abutment bridge behavior: Parametric analysis of a Massachusetts bridge", J. Bridge Eng., ASCE, 12(1), pp. 64-71 (2007).

25. Ooi, P.S., Lin, X., and Hamada, H.S. "Numerical study of an integral abutment bridge supported on drilled shafts", J. Bridge Eng., ASCE, 13(5), pp. 19- 31 (2010).

26. Dicleli, M. and Erhan, S. "Effect of soil-bridge interaction on the magnitude of internal forces in integral abutment bridge components due to live load effects", Engineering Structures, 32(1), pp. 129-145 (2010).

27. Huang, J., Shield, C.K., and French, C.E. "Parametric study on concrete integral abutment bridge", J. Bridge Eng., ASCE, 13(5), pp. 511-526 (2008).

28. Dicleli, M. and Albhaisi, S. "Maximum length of integral bridges supported on steel H-piles driven in sand ", Engineering Structures, 25(1), pp. 1491-1504 (2009).

29. Tatsuoka, F., HenryMun, N., Tetsuya, K., Nishikiorid, H., Somae, R., Kiyotaf, T., Tateyamag, M., and Watanabeg, K. "Stability of existing bridges improved by structural integration and nailing", Soils and Foundations, 52(3), pp. 430-448 (2012).

30. Koseki, J., Munaf, Y., Tatsuoka, F., Tateyama, M., Kojima, K., and Sato, T. "Shaking and tilt table tests of geosynthetic - reinforced soil and conventional - type retaining walls", Geosynthetics International, 5(2), pp. 73-96 (2011).

31. Tatsuoka, F., Tateyama, M., Koda, M., Kojima, M., Yonezawa, T., Shindo, Y., Tamai, S. "Research and construction of geosynthetices-reinforced soil integral bridges", Transportation Geotechnics, 8, pp. 4-25 (2016).

32. Rollins, K.M., Olsen, R.J., Egbert, J.J., Jensen, D.H., Olsen, K.G., and Garrett, B.H. "Pile spacing acts on lateral pile group behavior: Load tests", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 132(10), pp. 1262-1271 (2006).

33. Wood, D.M., Geotechnical Modeling, John Wiley & Sons, Spon Press, London and New York (2004).

34. White, D.J., Take, W.A., and Bolton, M.D. "Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry", Geotechnique, 53(7), pp. 619-631 (2003).

35. Hajialilue, M., Sojoudi, Y., and Azarnya, H. "Soil deformation pattern around laterally loaded piles", International Journal of Physical Modeling in Geotechnics, 11(3), pp. 116-125 (2011).

Transactions on Civil Engineering (A)

January and February 2020Pages 88-104