Experimental research on adfreezing strengthsat the interface between frozen fine sand and structures

Document Type : Article


Civil Engineering Institute, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China


To explore the mechanisms concerning adfreezing strengths at the interface between frozen fine sand and structures, a series of experiments were conducted using a direct shear apparatus. The main results were as follows: All adfreezing strengths increased with decreasing temperature and increasing normal stress and surface roughness. Peak adfreezing strength (peak shear stress at failure) had a linear relationship with temperature, its relationship with normal stress was in line with the Mohr–Coulomb criterion, and its relationship with roughness satisfied a logarithmic function. Residual adfreezing strength (post-peak shear stress) varied with temperature and normal stress and presented three typical regular patterns—sustained stable, first stable and then fluctuating, and circularly fluctuating. The fluctuation cycle about strength curves increased with increasing roughness. An empirical formula on adfreezing strengths incorporating temperatures, normal stress, and roughness was constructed.


Main Subjects

1. Lashkari, A. Prediction of the shaft resistance of nondisplacement piles", International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 37, pp. 904-931 (2013).
2. Kadivar, M. and Lashkari, A. A constitutive model for unsaturated soil-structure interfaces", International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods
in Geomechanics, 40, pp. 207-234 (2016).
3. Lashkari, A. A critical state model for saturated and
unsaturated interfaces", Scientia Iranica, 19(5), pp.
1147-1156 (2012).
4. Dejong, J.T. and Westgate, Z.J. Role of initial state,
material properties, and con nement on local and
global soil structure behavior", ASCE J. Geotechnical
Geoenvironmental Eng.., 135, pp. 1646-1660 (2009).
5. Miller, G.A. and Hamid, T.B. Direct shear apparatus
for unsaturated soil interface testsing", ASTM GTJ,
30, pp. 182-191 (2007).
6. Suits, L.D., Sheahan, T.C., Porcino, D., et al. Interface
behavior of sands from constant normal sti ness
direct shear tests", ASTM GTJ, 26, pp. 1-13 (2003).
S. Quanbin et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 663{674 673
7. Dove, J.E. and Jarrett, J.B. Behavior of dilative
sand interfaces in a geotribology framework", ASCE
J. Geotechnical Eng., 128, pp. 25-37 (2002).
8. Evgin, E. and Fakharian, K. E ect of stress path
on the behavior of sand-steel interface", Canadian
Geotechnical Journal, 33, pp. 853-865 (1996).
9. Yin, Z., Hong, Z., and Xu, G. A study of deformation
in the interface between soil and concrete", Computers
and Geotechnics, 17, pp. 75-92 (1995).
10. Parameswaran, V.R. Adfreeze strength of frozen
sand to model piles", Canadian Geotechnical Journal,
15(4), pp. 494-500 (1978).
11. Ladanyi, B. and Theriault, A. A study of some factors
a ecting the adfreeze bond if piles in permafrost", Proceedings
of Geotechnical Engineering Congress, GSP
27 ASCE, 1.1, pp. 213-224 (1990).
12. Terashima, T., Kawai, T., Furuya, A., et al. Experimental
study on adfreeze bond strength between
ice and pile structure", Proceedings of the 9th International
O shore and Polar Engineering Conference,
Brest, France, pp. 549-556 (1999).
13. Weaver, J.S. and Morgenstern, N.R. Pile design in
permafrost", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 18(3),
pp. 357-370 (1981).
14. Zhang, J., Zhu, Y., and Zhang, J. Adfreeze strength
of model piles in frozen soil under dynamic loads", Proceedings
of the Seventh Permafrost International Conference,
Yellowknife, Canada, pp. 1217-1221 (1998).
15. Liu, J.K., Cui, Y.H., Wang, P.C., et al. Design and
validation of a new dynamic direct shear apparatus
for frozen soil", Cold Regions Science and Technology,
106, pp. 207-215 (2014).
16. Lv, P., Liu, J.K., and Cui, Y.H. A study on dynamic
shear strength on frozen soil-concrete interface",
Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 5(4), pp. 408-412
17. Biggar, K.W. and Sego, D.C. The strength and
deformation behaviour of model adfreeze and grouted
piles in saline frozen soils", International Journal of
Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics
Abstracts, 31(1), pp. 319-337 (1994).
18. Ueda, Y.K., Moriuchi, K., and Ohrai, T. In
of normal stress on the adfreeze interface on adfreeze
shear strength of frozen soil", Journal of the Japanese
Society of Snow & Ice, 66, pp. 197-205 (in Japanese)
19. Choi, C.H. and Ko, S. A study for predicting adfreeze
bond strength from shear strength of frozen soil",
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, 27(10),
pp. 13-23 (in Korean) (2011).
20. Lee, J., Kim, Y., and Choi, C. A study for adfreeze
bond strength developed between weathered granite
soils and aluminum plate", Journal of the Korean Geo-
Environmental Society, 14(12), pp. 23-30 (2013) (in
21. Ko, S.G. and Choi, C.H. Experimental study on
adfreeze bond strength between frozen sand and aluminium
with varying freezing temperature and vertical
con ning pressure", Journal of the Korean Geotechnical
Society, 27(9), pp. 67-76 (2011) (in Korean).
22. Lee, J.Y. and Choi, C.H. A study for shear strength
characteristics of frozen soils under various temperature
conditions and vertical con ning pressures",
Journal of Korean Geo-Environmental Society, 13(11),
pp. 51-60 (2012) (in Korean).
23. Lee, J.Y. and Choi, C.H. Shear strength characteristics
of weathered granite soil below the freezing point",
Journal of Korean Geo-Environmental Society, 14(7),
pp. 19-29 (2013) (in Korean).
24. Liu, J., Lv, P., Cui, Y. et al. Experimental study on
direct shear behavior of frozen soil-concrete interface",
Cold Regions Science and Technology, 104-105, pp.
1-6 (2014).
25. Zhao, L., Yang, P., and Wang, H. Development and
application of large-scale multi-functional frozen soilstructure
interface cycle-shearing system", Chinese
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,(04), pp. 707-713
(in Chinese) (2013).
26. Zhao, L., Yang, P., Wang, J., et al. Cyclic direct
shear behaviors of frozen soil-structure interface under
constant normal sti ness condition", Cold Regions
Science and Technology, 102, pp. 52-62 (2014).
27. Zhao, L., Yang, P., Wang, J., et al. Impacts of surface
roughness and loading conditions on cyclic direct
shear behaviors of an arti cial frozen silt-structure
interface", Cold Regions Science and Technology, 106-
107, pp. 183-193 (2014).
28. Sun, H., Yang, P. and Wang, G. Development of
mechanical experimental system for interface layer
between frozen soil and structure and its application",
Rock and Soil Mechanics, 35(12), pp. 3636-3641+3643
(2014) (in Chinese).
29. Qiu, G., Liu, J., Liu, H. Geocryological glossary",
Gansu Science and Technology Press, Lanzhou, pp.
115-117 (1994) (in Chinese).