Antibacterial properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)

Document Type : Article


1 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar, Perak, Malaysia

2 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, INTI International University, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

3 Centre for Ocean Research, (DST-FIST sponsored Centre), Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India

4 Department of Mechatronics & Biomedical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engeneering and Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Bandar Sungai Long, 43000, Malaysia

5 Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Bandar Sungai Long, 43000, Malaysia


The involvement of nanotechnology has brought advancements in the environmental
and medical applications. Recently, zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO NP) is commonly used to
treat a wide range of bacterial and fungal skin infections due to its antimicrobial property.
This investigation was intended to study the antimicrobial effect of ZnO NP on Pseudomonas
aeruginosa by testing the bacterial inhibition and the morphological damages caused by ZnO
NP on P. aeruginosa. The results of the study at 24 h exhibited a typical dose dependant and
significant (p> 0.05) inhibition on the growth of P. aeruginosa treated with 5 to 150 μg/mL
of ZnO NP. The polysaccharides and polypeptides from P. aeruginosa cell wall were found to
be associated to the attachment of ZnO NPs on bacterial cells as illustrated in the Fourier
transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
images displayed the surface attachment of ZnO NPs on bacteria and the morphological
changes such as disrupted cell wall integrity, cell bending and cell distortion as the result of
ZnO NPs interaction on the cell wall of P. aeruginosa.


  1. References

    1. Bhushan, B., In Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, 4th Edn., Springer, Germany (2017).
    2. Yousef, J.M. and Danial, E.N. “In vitro antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of zinc oxide and nano-particle zinc oxide against pathogenic strains”, Journal of Health Sciences2(4), pp.38-42 (2012).
    3. Siddiqi, K.S., Ur Rahman, A. and Husen, A. “Properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their activity against microbes” Nanoscale Research Letters13(1), p.141 (2018).
    4. Dizaj, S.M., Loftipour, F., Jalali, M.B., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of the metals and metal oxide nanoparticles” Materials Science & Engineering, 44, pp. 278 – 284 (2018).
    5. Sharma, D., Rajput, J., Kaith, B.S., et al. “Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and study of their antibacterial and antifungal properties” Thin Solid Films519(3), pp.1224-1229 (2010).
    6. Govindappa, M., Tejashree, S., Thanuja, V., et al. “Pomegranate fruit fleshy pericarp mediated silver nanoparticles possessing antimicrobial, antibiofilm formation, antioxidant, biocompatibility and anticancer activity” Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology61, p.102289 (2021).
    7. Jacob, J.M., Rajan, R., Tom, T.C., et al. “Biogenic design of ZnS quantum dots-Insights into their in-vitro cytotoxicity, photocatalysis and biosensing properties” Ceramics International45(18), pp.24193-24201(2019).
    8. Jacob, J.M., Rajan, R., Aji, M., et al. “Bio-inspired ZnS quantum dots as efficient photo catalysts for the degradation of methylene blue in aqueous phase” Ceramics International45(4), pp.4857-4862 (2019).
    9. Balakrishnan, R.M., Ilango, I., Gamana, G., et al. “Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and peroxymonosulfate system for the removal of ampicillin from aqueous solution” Journal of Water Process Engineering, p.101823 (2020).
    10. Hajipour, M.J., Fromm, K.M., Ashkarran, A.A., et al. “Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles” Trends in Biotechnology30(10), pp.499-511 (2012).
    11. Wang, L., Hu, C. and Shao, L. “The antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles: present situation and prospects for the future” International Journal of Nanomedicine12, p.1227 (2017).
    12. Jones, N., Ray, B., Ranjit, K.T., et al. “Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle suspensions on a broad spectrum of microorganisms” FEMS Microbiology Letters279(1), pp.71-76 (2008).
    13. Beyth, N., Houri-Haddad, Y., Domb, A., et al. “Alternative antimicrobial approach: nano-antimicrobial materials” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2015(246012), pp. 1-16 (2015).
    14. Sirelkhatim, A., Mamud, S., Seeni, A., et al. “Review on zinc oxide nanoparticles: Antibacterial activity and toxicity mechanism” Nano-Micro Letters, 7(3), pp. 219-242 (2015).
    15. Emami-Karvani, Z. and Chehrazi, P. “Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria” African Journal of Microbiology Research5(12), pp.1368-1373 (2011).
    16. Padmavathy, N. and Vijayaraghavan, R. “Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials9(3), p.035004 (2008).
    17. Premanathan, M., Karthikeyan, K., Jeyasubramanian, K., et al. “Selective toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward Gram-positive bacteria and cancer cells by apoptosis through lipid peroxidation” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine7(2), pp.184-192 (2011).
    18. Sisubalan, N., Ramkumar, V.S., Pugazhendhi, A., et al. “ROS-mediated cytotoxic activity of ZnO and CeO 2 nanoparticles synthesized using the Rubia cordifolia L. leaf extract on MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line” Environmental Science and Pollution Research25(11), pp.10482-10492 (2018).
    19. Dastjerdi, R. and Montazer, M. “A review on the application of inorganic nano-structured materials in the modification of textiles: focus on anti-microbial properties” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces79(1), pp.5-18 (2010).
    20. Jiang, J., Pi, J. and Cai, J. “The advancing of zinc oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications” Bioinorganic chemistry and applications2018 (2018).
    21. Martínez-Carmona, M., Gun’ko, Y. and Vallet-Regí, M. “ZnO nanostructures for drug delivery and theranostic applications” Nanomaterials8(4), p.268 (2018).
    22. Suresh, J., Pradheesh, G., Alexramani, V., et al. “Green synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticle using insulin plant (Costus pictus D. Don) and investigation of its antimicrobial as well as anticancer activities” Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology9(1), p.015008 (2018).
    23. Babu, E.P., Subastri, A., Suyavaran, A., et al. “Size dependent uptake and hemolytic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on erythrocytes and biomedical potential of ZnO-ferulic acid conjugates” Scientific reports7(1), pp.1-12 (2017).
    24. Varadavenkatesan, T., Lyubchik, E., Pai, S., et al. “Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B by zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using the leaf extract of Cyanometra ramiflora” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology199, p.111621 (2019).
    25. Vinayagam, R., Selvaraj, R., Arivalagan, P., et al. “Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic dye degradation capability of Calliandra haematocephala-mediated zinc oxide nanoflowers” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology203, p.111760 (2020).
    26. Brindhadevi, K., Samuel, M.S., Verma, T.N., et al. “Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs)-induced antioxidants and photocatalytic degradation activity from hybrid grape pulp extract (HGPE)” Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology28, p.101730 (2020).
    27. Osmond, M.J. and Mccall, M.J. “Zinc oxide nanoparticles in modern sunscreens: an analysis of potential exposure and hazard” Nanotoxicology4(1), pp.15-41 (2010).
    28. Song, W., Zhang, J., Guo, J., et al. “Role of the dissolved zinc ion and reactive oxygen species in cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles” Toxicology letters199(3), pp.389-397 (2010).
    29. Sabir, S., Arshad, M. and Chaudhari, S.K. “Zinc oxide nanoparticles for revolutionizing agriculture: synthesis and applications” The Scientific World Journal2014 (2014).
    30. Reddy, K.M., Feris, K., Bell, J., et al. “Selective toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems” Applied physics letters90(21), p.213902 (2007).
    31. Wahab, R., Mishra, A., Yun, S.I., et al. “Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared via non-hydrolytic solution route” Applied microbiology and biotechnology87(5), pp.1917-1925 (2010).
    32. Baek, Y.W. and An, Y.J. “Microbial toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, NiO, ZnO, and Sb2O3) to Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptococcus aureus” Science of the total environment409(8), pp.1603-1608 (2011).
    33. Sudheesh Kumar, P.T., Lakshmanan, V.K., Anilkumar, T.V., et al. “Flexible and microporous chitosan hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandages for wound dressing: in vitro and in vivo evaluation” ACS applied materials & interfaces4(5), pp.2618-2629 (2012).
    34. Abdullah, B.J., Atasoy, N. and Omer, A.K. “Evaluate the effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and zinc oxide ointment on skin wound healing” Annals of Medicine and Surgery37, pp.30-37 (2019).
    35. Mishra, P.K., Mishra, H., Ekielski, A., et al. “Zinc oxide nanoparticles: A promising nanomaterial for biomedical applications” Drug Discovery Today, 22(12), pp. 1825-1834 (2017).
    36. Wu, D.C., Chan, W.W., Metelitsa, A.I., et al. “Pseudomonas skin infection” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology12(3), pp.157-169 (2011).
    37. Gellatly, S.L. and Hancock, R.E. “Pseudomonas aeruginosa: new insights into pathogenesis and host defences” Pathogens and Disease67(3), pp.159-173 (2013).
    38. Alhazmi, A. “Pseudomonas aeruginosa-pathogenesis and pathogenic mechanisms”. International Journal of Biology7(2), p.44 (2015).
    39. Azam, A., Ahmed, A.S., Oves, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study” International Journal of Nanomedicine7, p.6003 (2012).
    40. Alamdari, S., Sasani Ghamsari, M., Lee, C., et al. “Preparation and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Sambucus ebulus” Applied Sciences10(10), p.3620 (2020).
    41. Kathleen, P.T. and Arthur, T. In Foundations in microbiology:basic priciples, 8th Edn., McGraw Hill, New York (2012).
    42. Brazas, M.D. and Hancock, R.E. “Ciprofloxacin induction of a susceptibility determinant in Pseudomonas aeruginosa” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy49(8), pp.3222-3227 (2005).
    43. Huang, Z., Hu, Y., Shou, L. and Song, M. “Isolation and partial characterization of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Paenibacillus ehimensis B7” BMC Microbiology13(1), p.87 (2013).
    44. Sun, Y., Sun, F., Feng, W., et al. “Hyperoxide inhibits biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine14(2), pp.1647-1652 (2017).
    45. Ann, L.C., Mahmud, S., Mohd Bakhori, S.K., et al. “Antibacterial responses of zinc oxide structures against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes” Ceramics International40(2), pp.2993-3001 (2014).
    46. Dhas, S.P., Shiny, P.J., Khan, S., et al. “Toxic behavior of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on environmental microorganisms” Journal of Basic Microbiology54(9), pp.916-927 (2014).
    47. Melin, A.M., Perromat, A. and Déléris, G. “Pharmacologic application of Fourier transform IR spectroscopy: in vivo toxicity of carbon tetrachloride on rat liver” Biopolymers: Original Research on Biomolecules57(3), pp.160-168 (2000).
    48. Gorgulu, S.T., Dogan, M. and Severcan, F. “The characterization and differentiation of higher plants by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy” Applied Spectroscopy61(3), pp.300-308 (2007).
    49. Garip, S., Gozen, A.C. and Severcan, F. “Use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for rapid comparative analysis of Bacillus and Micrococcus isolates” Food Chemistry113(4), pp.1301-1307 (2009).
    50. Ahluwalia, S.S. and Goyal, D. “Removal of heavy metals by waste tea leaves from aqueous solution” Engineering in Life Sciences5(2), pp.158-162 (2005).
    51. Mathur, A., Kumari, J., Parashar, A., et al. “Decreased phototoxic effects of TiO₂ nanoparticles in consortium of bacterial isolates from domestic waste water” PLOS One10(10), p.e0141301 (2015).
    52. Kumari, J., Kumar, D., Mathur, A., et al. “Cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles towards freshwater sediment microorganisms at low exposure concentrations” Environmental Research135, pp.333-345 (2014).
    53. Dalai, S., Pakrashi, S., Kumar, R.S., et al. “A comparative cytotoxicity study of TiO2 nanoparticles under light and dark conditions at low exposure concentrations” Toxicology Research1(2), pp.116-130 (2012).
    54. Kairyte, K., Kadys, A. and Luksiene, Z. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of photoactivated ZnO nanoparticles in suspension” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology128, pp.78-84 (2013).
    55. Djearamane, S., Lim, Y.M., Wong, L.S., et al. “Cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis” PeerJ6, p.e4682 (2018).
    56. Djearamane, S., Wong, L.S., Mooi, L.Y., et al. “Short-term cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Chlorella vulgarisSains Malaysiana, 48(1), pp.69-73 (2019).
    57. Djearamane, S., Lim, Y.M., Wong, L.S., et al. “Cellular accumulation and cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in microalga Haematococcus pluvialis” PeerJ7, p.e7582 (2019).