Modeling particle deposition in the respiratory system during successive respiratory cycles

Document Type : Article

Authors

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-9567, Iran.

Abstract

In this study, using a 5-lobe symmetric model, total, lobar and generational particle deposition in the lungs during successive cycles is investigated. It has been found that for the particle size between 0.05 and 2 μm and the tidal volumes greater than 1000 ml, considering the effect of successive cycles predicted more deposition fraction per cycle compared to a single cycle up to about 16 percent. The mentioned range of tidal volume is related to light or heavy physical activities. So, it can be understood that people exposed to particulate matter within the mentioned size range, when acting physically, are at more health risk compared not only to the resting state, but also to the same state calculations based on a single cycle. Finally, total and generational remaining mass fraction suspended in the respiratory tract after the completion of each cycle is calculated. This remaining mass fraction turned out to be negligible except for particles between 0.05 and 2 μm.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. References:

    1. Yeh, H.-C. and Schum, G. "Models of human lung airways and their application to inhaled particle deposition", Bulletin of mathematical biology., 42, pp. 461-480 (1980).
    2. Koblinger, L. and Hofmann, W. "Monte Carlo modeling of aerosol deposition in human lungs. Part I: Simulation of particle transport in a stochastic lung structure". Journal of Aerosol Science., 21, pp. 661-674 (1990).
    3. Hofmann, W. and Koblinger, L. "Monte Carlo modeling of aerosol deposition in human lungs. Part III: Comparison with experimental data", Journal of Aerosol Science., 23, pp. 51-63 (1992).
    4. Koblinger, L. "Analysis of human lung morphometric data for stochastic aerosol deposition calculations", Physics in medicine and biology., 30, pp. 541 (1985).
    5. Koblinger, L. and Hofmann, W. "Aerosol deposition calculations with a stochastic lung model", Acta Physica Hungarica., 59, pp. 31-34 (1986).
    6. Koblinger, L. and Hofmann, W., "Monte Carlo model for aerosol deposition in human lungs", Annals of Occupational Hygiene., 32, pp. 65-70 (1988).
    7. Dastanpour, R., Monjezi, M., Saidi, M.S. and Pishevar, A. "Applying a realistic novel ventilation model based on spatial expansion of acini in a stochastic lung", Scientia Iranica. Transaction B, Mechanical Engineering., 21, pp. 358 (2014).
    8. Monjezi, M., Dastanpour, R., Saidi, M.S. and Pishevar, A., "Prediction of particle deposition in the respiratory track using 3D–1D modeling", Scientia Iranica., 19, pp. 1479-1486 (2012).
    9. Georgakakou, S., Gourgoulianis, K., Daniil, Z. and Bontozoglou, V. "Prediction of particle deposition in the lungs based on simple modeling of alveolar mixing", Respiratory physiology & neurobiology., 225, pp. 8-18 (2016).
    10. Asgharian, B. and Price, O.T. "Deposition of ultrafine (nano) particles in the human lung", Inhalation toxicology., 19, pp. 1045-1054 (2007).
    11. Raabe, O., Yeh, H.-C., Schum, G. and Phalen, R.F. "Tracheobronchial geometry: human, dog, rat, hamster", (1976).
    12. Salma, I., Füri, P., Németh, Z., Balásházy, I., Hofmann, W. and Farkas, Á. "Lung burden and deposition distribution of inhaled atmospheric urban ultrafine particles as the first step in their health risk assessment", Atmospheric Environment., 104, pp. 39-49 (2015).
    13. Weibel, E. R., Sapoval, B. and Filoche, M. "Design of peripheral airways for efficient gas exchange", Respiratory physiology & neurobiology., 148, pp. 3-21 (2005).
    14. Ochs, M., Nyengaard, J.R., Jung, A., Knudsen, L., Voigt, M., Wahlers, T., Richter, J. and Gundersen, H.J.G. "The number of alveoli in the human lung", American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine., 169, pp. 120-124 (2004).
    15. Inthavong, K., Choi, L.-T., Tu, J., Ding, S. and Thien, F. "Micron particle deposition in a tracheobronchial airway model under different breathing conditions", Medical engineering & physics., 32, pp. 1198-1212 (2010).
    16. Tian, G., Longest, P.W., Su, G., Walenga, R.L. and Hindle, M. "Development of a stochastic individual path (SIP) model for predicting the tracheobronchial deposition of pharmaceutical aerosols: effects of transient inhalation and sampling the airways", Journal of Aerosol Science., 42, pp. 781-799 (2011).
    17. Henry, F. and Tsuda, A. "Radial transport along the human acinar tree", Journal of biomechanical engineering., 132, pp. 101001 (2010).
    18. Shang, Y., Inthavong, K. and Tu, J. "Detailed micro-particle deposition patterns in the human nasal cavity influenced by the breathing zone", Computers & Fluids., 114, pp. 141-150 (2015).
    19. Shi, H., Kleinstreuer, C. and Zhang, Z. "Dilute suspension flow with nanoparticle deposition in a representative nasal airway model", Physics of Fluids (1994-present)., 20, pp. 013301 (2008).
    20. N. C. o. R. Protection, Measurements. (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements) (1997).
    21. Golshahi, L., Noga, M., Vehring, R. and Finlay, W. "An in vitro study on the deposition of micrometer-sized particles in the extrathoracic airways of adults during tidal oral breathing", Annals of biomedical engineering., 41, pp. 979-989 (2013).
    22. Hinds, W.C. "Uniform particle motion", In Aerosol technology: properties, behavior, and measurement of airborne particles, 2nd Edn., pp. 48-51, Wiley-Interscience Pub., New York, USA (1982).
    23. Xi, J. and Longest, P.W. "Effects of oral airway geometry characteristics on the diffusional deposition of inhaled nanoparticles", Journal of biomechanical engineering., 130, pp. 011008 (2008).
    24. Yu, C., Diu, C. and Soong, T. "Statistical analysis of aerosol deposition in nose and mouth", The American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal., 42, pp. 726-733 (1981).
    25. Salma, I., Balásházy, I., Hofmann, W. and Záray, G. "Effect of physical exertion on the deposition of urban aerosols in the human respiratory system", Journal of Aerosol Science. 33, pp. 983-997 (2002).
    26. Salma, I., Balásházy, I., Winkler-Heil, R., Hofmann, W. and Záray, G. "Effect of particle mass size distribution on the deposition of aerosols in the human respiratory system", Journal of Aerosol Science., 33, pp. 119-132 (2002).
    27. Zhang, Z., Kleinstreuer, C. and Kim, C.S. "Airflow and nanoparticle deposition in a 16-generation tracheobronchial airway model", Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 36, pp. 2095-2110 (2008).
    28. Goo, J. and Kim, C.S. "Theoretical analysis of particle deposition in human lungs considering stochastic variations of airway morphology", Journal of aerosol science., 34, pp. 585-602 (2003).
    29. Cohen, B.S., Sussman, R.G. and Lippmann, M. "Ultrafine particle deposition in a human tracheobronchial cast", Aerosol Science and Technology., 12, pp. 1082-1091 (1990).
    30. Asgharian, B., Hofmann, W. and Bergmann, R. "Particle deposition in a multiple-path model of the human lung", Aerosol Science & Technology., 34, pp. 332-339 (2001).
    31. Choi, J.-I. and Kim, C.S. "Mathematical analysis of particle deposition in human lungs: an improved single path transport model", Inhalation toxicology., 19, pp. 925-939 (2007).