2020-12-02T10:23:35Z
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/?_action=export&rf=summon&issue=1132
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
Vapor solidification of saturated air in two-dimensional stagnation flow
ali
abbasi
Mohsen
Ghayeni
In the present paper, stagnation flow solidification of vapor from saturated air is investigated. Saturated air with strain rate a impinges on a flat plate and, because the plate temperature is below the freezing temperature of water, condensation occurs and an ice layer forms on the plate. The ice surface is modeled as an accelerated flat plate moving toward the impinging fluid. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations were subjected to a similarity transformation to obtain a single ordinary differential equation for the velocity distribution. Two methods of solution were used for the energy equation: a finite-difference numerical technique and a numerical solution of a similarity equation; these two results were compared to establish accuracy. Freezing time first increases as the far-field temperature decreases from above zero degrees Celcius and then rapidly approaches zero as the far-field temperature approaches zero Celcius. Despite the physical experiment, here the size of the nearest cell to the substrate controls the time at which condensation begins. As a result, maximum time before freezing begins occurs at about 5℃ air temperature, with the cell size 0.01 or 0.02 mm. The air temperature distribution and the ultimate frozen thickness for two saturated air temperatures are also presented.
water vapor solidification
stagnation flow
unsteady flow
viscous fluid
incompressible flow
similarity solution
2020
04
01
693
703
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21154_01077c288f0e628c4d89f742999f9eb9.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
Computer modeling of the operating room ventilation performance in connection with surgical site infection
Behrang
Sajadi
Mohammad Hassan
Saidi
Goodarz
Ahmadi
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a critical source of post-surgical complications in hospitals which affects 2.6% of all surgeries. The primary source of SSI is the deposition of flakes released from the exposed skin of the surgical staff or the patient on the exposed surgical wound. There is considerable interest to design an appropriate ventilation system to minimize SSI. In this study, a computational model for simulating the airflow and thermal conditions in an operating room is developed, and the transport and deposition of particulate contaminants near the surgical wound are analyzed. The results show the formation of a thermal plume over the wound tissue, which is typically at higher temperature than the surrounding. The thermal plume protects the wound from deposition of falling contaminants. The effects of particle size, surgical lights characteristics, and presence of partitions on the optimum inlet air velocity are also studied. Based on the results, the formation of thermal plume over the surgical lamps may easily disturb the ventilation airflow and impresses the optimum inlet air velocity accordingly. The present study provides a better understanding of airflow pattern and transport process in the operating rooms equipped with the UCV systems.
Operating room (OR)
Ultra-clean ventilation (UCV) system
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Surgical site infection (SSI)
2020
04
01
704
714
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21203_a73db89e9a248339f63abaf00f65e6ed.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
Nonlinear vibration analysis of a partially coated circular microplate under electrostatic actuationpartially coated circular microplate under electrostatic actuation
Reza
Sepahvandi
mehdi
zamanian
Behnam
Firouzi
S.A.A.
Hosseini
This paper investigates the optimal configuration for a partially two-layered circular capacitive microplate subjected to AC-DC electrostatic actuation. To this end, the static deflection due to DC electrostatic actuation, natural frequency of vibration about static position and primary resonance response due to AC electrostatic actuation are studied. Primarily, the nonlinear equations of motion are derived through classical laminated plate theory (CLPT). Then, the static position and natural frequency of vibration around static position are obtained using Galerkin approach. The linear mode shapes of non-uniform microplate i.e. a microplate coated as partial by a second layer are used as comparison functions. The forced vibration equations around static position are separated using Galerkin method, and solved by the multiple scale perturbation theory. Firstly, the impact of changes in the second layer radius on the variations of static and dynamic response of the system is studied while its thickness remains constant. Then, the effect of changes in the second layer thickness is studied while its radius remains constant. Finally, the impact of simultaneous change in the radius and thickness of the second layer is studied while its volume remains constant.
Electrostatic actuation
Microplate
Static deflection
Primary resonance
2020
04
01
715
729
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21150_00488a1a547c7635510ebbca57273f10.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
Pulsating flow induced parametric instabilities of a smart embedded micro-shell based on nonlocal piezoelasticity theory
Vahid
Atabakhshian
Alireza
Shooshtari
In this study, the dynamical instabilities of an embedded smart micro-shell conveying pulsating fluid flow is investigated based on nonlocal piezoelasticity theory and nonlinear cylindrical shell model. The micro-shell is surrounded by an elastic foundation which is suitable for both Winkler spring and Pasternak shear modules. The internal fluid flow is considered to be purely harmonic, irrotational, isentropic, Newtonian and incompressible and it is mathematically modeled using linear potential flow theory, time mean Navier Stokes equations and Knudsen number. For more reality of the micro-scale problem the pulsating viscous effects as well as the slip boundary condition are also taken into accounts. Employing the modified Lagrange equations of motion for open systems, the nonlinear coupled governing equations are achieved and consequently the instability boundaries are obtained using the Bolotin’s method. In the numerical results section, a comprehensive discussion is made on the dynamical instabilities of the system (such as divergence; flutter and parametric resonance). It is found that applying positive electric potential field will improve the stability of the system as an actuator or as a vibration amplitude controller in the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems.
Dynamical instability
Pulsating flow
Smart materials
Cylindrical Shell
Nonlocal theory
2020
04
01
730
744
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21201_efb7ce186236d77ee43f1c2c151764bf.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
Agricultural tractors of the fifth generation
Edward
Lipkovich
Andrey
Nesmiyan
Sergey
Nikitchenko
Vladimir
Shchirov
Yuriy
Kormiltsev
The article deals with the problem of substantiation of mobile power units (MPU) – tractors for agriculture of the fifth generation. This issue is quite relevant. The main purpose of the work is to analyze agricultural tractors of the fifth generation. The authors formulated the main requirements for the ecological balance of the technogenic interaction of MPUs with production processes in agro-ecosystems of grain production in the zonal conditions of South-Russian arid agriculture. Proposals for the creation of new MPUs have been developed; the technological structures of machine aggregates based on the MPU of the fifth generation of classes 3, 5-6 and 8 that determined the technical schemes of the named MPU were determined. Analytical models for calculating the power characteristics of MPU of the named classes in deterministic and stochastic modes in relation to the most energy-intensive operations with definitions of the mathematical expectations of MTA’s power and performance. Also, an analysis of the MTAs effectiveness based on new MPUs upon criterion of the time spent on cultivating crop rotations on the examples of peasant farms and agricultural organizations (APC, CAE, etc.)
Machine-tractor unit
Mobile energy facility
Structural and analytical model
Stochastic process
Crop rotation
Mathematical expectation
2020
04
01
745
756
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21048_09fd15c31b71e310fa27f7a5b2148902.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
Damage detection in a double-beam system using proper orthogonal decomposition and teaching-learning based algorithm
Alborz
Mirzabeigy
Reza
Madoliat
This study deals with inverse approach for damage detection in a double-beam system. A double-beam system made of two parallel beams connected through an elastic layer. Degradation in stiffness of beams element, crack occurrence and partly destruction of inner layer has been considered as different types of damage. The time domain acceleration response of the system measured and proper orthogonal decomposition has been applied to the collected data in order to derive the proper orthogonal values (POV) and proper orthogonal modes (POM) of the system. Effect of single damage in different locations on the POV has been analyzed and an objective function has been defined using the dominant POV and POM of each beam separately. In order to increase robustness of the method against noise, the objective function enriched by adding statistical property of time domain response. The teaching-learning based optimization algorithm has been employed to solve optimization problem. Efficiency of the proposed method for detecting single and multiple damages in the system demonstrated with and without noise. Simulation results show good accuracy of the proposed method for detection single and multiple damages of different types in the system.
Double-beam system
Proper orthogonal decomposition
crack
Damage
Teaching-Learning based optimization
2020
04
01
757
771
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21222_e3de823e3f632afd7e8a94d7cb46607e.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
A new numerical application of the generalized Rosenau-RLW equation
Seydi Battal
Karakoc
In this article, a collocation finite element method based on septic B-splines as a tool has been carried out to obtain the numerical solutions of the nonlinear generalized Rosenau-RLW equation. One of the advantages of this method is that when the bases are chosen at a high degree, better numerical solutions are obtained. Effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by solving the equation with various initial and boundary conditions. Also, in order to detect the performance of the method we have computed L2 and L1 error norms and two lowest invariants IM and IE: The obtained numerical results have been compared with some of those in the literature for similar parameters. This comparison clearly shows that the obtained results are better than and found in good conformity with the some earlier results. Stability analysis denotes that our algorithm, based on a Crank Nicolson approximation in time, is unconditionally stable.
Generalized Rosenau RLW equation
finite element method
collo- cation
septic B-spline
soliton
2020
04
01
772
783
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21130_a91423729350bd31d3fa94a8df246512.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
A novel procedure for micromechanical characterization of white matter constituents at various strain rates
Hesam
Hoursan
Farzam
Farahmand
M. T.
Ahmadian
Optimal hyperplastic coefficients of the micromechanical constituents of human brain stem were investigated. An evolutionary optimization algorithm was combined with a Finite Element (FE) model of a Representative Volume Element (RVE) to find the optimal material properties of axon and Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM). The tension and compression test results of a previous experiment were used for optimizing the material coefficients and the shear experiment was used for validation of the resulting constitutive model. Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC) were applied to ensure the symmetry of displacements on the opposite faces of the RVE. The optimization algorithm searched for optimal shear moduli and fiber stiffness of axon and ECM by fitting the average stress in axonal direction. The resulting constitutive model was validated against the shear stress results of the same experiment. The results were in strong agreement with those of the shear test. In addition, we concluded that the instantaneous shear moduli and fiber stiffness of both axon and ECM rise at higher strain rates, and more importantly, the shear modulus ratio of axon to ECM decreases from the value of 10 at low strain rate of 0.5/s to the value of 5 at the strain rate of 30/s.
Hyperelastic coefficients
Representative Volume Element
Finite Element
Periodic Boundary Conditions
Strain rate
2020
04
01
784
794
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21132_eddfca53b2d635997df89309d841e7ff.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
Experimental investigation of shock wave oscillation on a thin supercritical airfoil
Mehran
Masdari
Masoud
Talebi
Aqil
Zeinalzadeh
Ali
Abdi
M. R.
Soltani
Experimental results of surface pressure distribution over a thin supercritical airfoil and its wake are presented. All tests were conducted at free stream Mach numbers from 0.27 to 0.85 and at different angles of attacks in a transonic wind tunnel. The model was equipped with static pressure orifices connected to high frequency pressure-transducers. The present paper evaluates variations of shock wave location with both Mach number and angle of attack variation as well as its interaction with the boundary layer leading to the buffet phenomenon. The frequency of the shock wave oscillation and unsteady wake behaviour at a freestream Mach no. of M=0.6 and at different angles of attacks are measured using cross-correlation technique by means of pressure sensors locating on the suction side of the model and via the rake total pressure data that was traversed vertically behind the model respectively. From the analysis of surface pressure distribution and wake data, drag divergence occurred at a certain angle of attack and at a frequency equal to the shock wave oscillation frequency.
buffet phenomenon
Shock Wave Oscillation
Experiment
Pressure Distribution
2020
04
01
795
805
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21200_61e93c200dd6f7fb002f8425fa7d304a.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
Optimal tuner selection using Kalman filter for a real-time modular gas turbine model
Reza
Sheikhbahaei
Gh. R.
Vossughi
Aria
Alasty
In this study, a real-time flexible modular modeling approach for the simulation of gas turbine engines dynamic behavior based on nonlinear thermodynamic and dynamic laws is addressed. The introduced model, which is developed in Matlab-Simulink environment, is an object-oriented high speed real-time computer model and is capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of a broad group of gas turbine engines due to its modular structure. Moreover, a Kalman filter-based model tuning procedure is applied to decrease the modeling errors. Modeling errors are defined as the mismatch between simulation results and available experimental data. This tuning procedure is an underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more tuning parameters than available measured data. Here, an innovative approach to produce a tuning parameter vector is introduced. This approach is based on seeking an optimal initial value for the Kalman filter tuning procedure. Three simulation studies are carried out in this paper to demonstrate the advantages, capabilities and performance of the proposed scheme. Furthermore, simulation results are compared with manufacturer’s published data, and with the experimental results gathered in either turbo-generator or turbo-compressor applications. Computational time requirement of the model is discussed at the end of the paper.
Gas Turbine
Dynamic Modeling
Modular Modeling
Model Tuning
Optimal Tuner Selection
Underdetermined Estimation
Kalman Filter
2020
04
01
806
818
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21249_22430cab5207362c6fa2fd5fe6543c6d.pdf
Scientia Iranica
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
1026-3098
2020
27
2
Modeling vibrational behavior of silicon nanowires using accelerated molecular dynamics simulations
H.
Nejat Pishkenari
Pourya
Delafrouz
The classical methods utilized for modeling the nano-scale systems are not practical because of the enlarged surface effects that appear at small dimensions. Contrarily, implementing more accurate methods results in prolonged computations as these methods are highly dependent on quantum and atomistic models and they can be employed for very small sizes in brief time periods. In order to speed up the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the silicon structures, coarse-graining (CG) models are put forward in this research. The procedure consists of establishing a map between the main structure’s atoms and the beads comprising the CG model and modifying the systems parameters such that the original and the CG models reach identical physical parameters. The accuracy and speed of this model is investigated by carrying out various static and dynamic simulations and assessing the effect of size. The simulations show that for a nanowire with thickness over 10a, where parameter a is the lattice constant of diamond structure, the Young modulus obtained by CG and MD models differs less than 5 percent. The results also show that the corresponding CG model behaves 190 time faster compared to the AA model.
Accelerated Molecular Dynamics
Coarse-Graining Model
Silicon Structures
Stillinger-Weber Potential
2020
04
01
819
827
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21372_6908659c6ddb9672c6a05d29178af653.pdf